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Guide to the Ethics of Intelligence and Weapons Development Oral History Collection
BANC MSS 2004/220 z  
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Allan, Richard 1946-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1946; former U.S. Army counterintelligence officer, founder of Sacred Sources, Inc.
Oral history: February 2, 2004, Crozet, VA
As a young counterintelligence officer in Germany during the Vietnam War, Richard "Freeman" Allan supervised the investigation of U.S. Army soldiers who had deserted and gone to foreign countries to protest the war and treatment of black soldiers. Sensitized to oppression by his prior sojourn in a fishing village in Ecuador, he came to agree with the conscientious black deserters he interviewed, and he subsequently promoted their cause as a civilian journalist. But Allan devotes the majority of his narrative to the tragic lives of two unnamed veterans, close friends of his, who were spiritually devastated through participation in covert operations. The specter of Allan's father, a major who commanded combat troops in the assault on Iwo Jima, haunts Allan's narrative.
carton 1, folder 1

Report from a Counterintelligence Officer on Two Devastated Veterans of Covert Operations February 2, 2004

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:1-2.
carton 1, folder 2

Supplementary material

 

Allingham, Fred, 1941-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1941, Seattle, Washington); Executive Director of the National Association of Radiation Survivors (NARS)
Oral history: February 23 and 24, 1995, Live Oak, CA
Allingham spent seven years in the Air Force as a communications technician for the Strategic Air Command, providing communications between bombers and command headquarters in Spain and in Guam. His father died of leukemia shortly after participating in the Marine clean up of Nagasaki at the end of World War, and this motivated Allingham's advocacy for radiation survivors. A professional community organizer with an M.A. in political science, Allingham has served as Executive Director of the National Association of Radiation Survivors (NARS) since 1988. He testified before the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments at the May 18-19, 1994 hearings. The interview surveys the development of NARS, the disparagement of atomic veterans by combat veterans, and the mistreatment of radiation survivors by government agents, including the 1993 President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.
carton 1, folder 3

Vicissitudes of the National Association of Radiation Survivors February 23, 1995

Conditions of Use

Page 17 sealed until January 1, 2013.

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:3-4.
carton 1, folder 4

Supplementary material

 

Bovar, Laura, 1939-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1939, Ukrainian Zaporochzje, Dneiper, Soviet Union; Professor of Pediatric Surgery, Emerita, Kiev, Ukraine.
Oral history: Philadelphia, PA, October 6, 1996
As a professor of pediatric surgery in the Ukraine, Bovar studied the sharp rise in congenital defects in infants born to Chernobyl mothers after the nuclear reactor explosion in 1986 but was forbidden to publish her research. She left the Ukraine in 1995 under death threats attributed to Ukrainian nationalists because of her Jewish background and her resistance to mandatory retirement for women at age 50.
carton 1, folder 5

Pediatric Surgery on Chernobyl Infants October 6, 1996

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:5-7.
carton 1, folder 6

Supplementary material

 

Brody, Hal, 1944-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1944, Los Angeles, CA; design engineer and anti-nuclear activist.
Oral history: January 3, 1997, San Diego, CA
Brody worked as a design engineer in the aerospace industry, then designed and manufactured electric potters' wheels for 22 years. As an expert in hot-weather backpacking, in the late 1980s, under the auspices of American Peace Test, he led a party of four into the Nevada Test Site to delay an underground nuclear test. Brody has taken a lead role in the Quaker non-violence training program for prison inmates, Alternatives to Violence Project. The interview contrasts nonviolent with violent approaches to national security at the level of the individual actor.
Rood's Assessment of Brody's Narrative of Nuclear Testing, interview commentary by H.W. Rood, February 14, 1997
carton 1, folder 7

Conscientious Sabotage at the Nevada Test Site January 3, 1997

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:8-9.
carton 1, folder 8

Rood's Assessment of Brody's Narrative of Nuclear Testing by Harold William Rood February 14, 1997

carton 1, folder 9

Supplementary material

 

Ely, Herbert, 1941-

carton 1, folder 10

A Technological Intelligence Analyst Looks at Intelligence Ethics February 4, 2004

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:10-11.
 

Ford, Cynthia, 1952-

carton 1, folder 11

Child Military Intelligence Agent September 2-3, 2002

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (6 compact discs) shelved as BANC CD 551.
 

Garcia, Ernest, 1928-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1928, Jemez Springs, NM, Chairman of Contaminated Veterans of America and Member of the National Association of Radiation Survivors
Oral history: October 21 and 22, 1995, Albuquerque, NM
Torture Interrogation of Nazis and Terrorists, special interview on the theme of torture interrogation of Nazis and terrorists: March 1, 1997
Post-War Black Operations Revisited, follow-up interview on Garcia's report of abduction of street children and Amazonian Indians for radiation experiments, with guitar accompaniment by John Crigler: June 6, 2001, Albuquerque, NM
The Military Chaplaincy and Spiritual Problems of Covert Operators, follow-up interview on spiritual distress following operations, preparatory to the Chaplain Service School Instructor training sponsored by the TRADOC Chaplain, January 28, 2003, Springfield, VA.
Garcia was a covert operator in a U.S. Army unit assigned to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) at the end of World War II. He served officially for five years, primarily in Central and South America, but refers to participation in later operations. At Edgewood Arsenal, MD, and elsewhere, Garcia reported he was subjected to radiation, biochemical, and psychochemical tests, which devastated his health. His wife suffered six miscarriages and stillbirths. The interview focuses on (a) the participation of scientists in weapons development using human subjects, (b) on Garcia's victimization, and (c) on Garcia's moral agency, including his uninformed abduction of South American street children and remote indigenous peoples for fatal radiation experiments in a preliminary stage of Operation Sunshine. Garcia gave testimony to the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments on January 30, 1995, in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Rood's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations, interview commentary by H. W. Rood, November 8, 1995
Stapleton's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations, interview commentary by R. Stapleton, December 16 and 17, 1995
Written commentary by N. Weissman, independent documentary filmmaker for the Army War College and other government agencies: March 7, 1999 [1 page].
Written commentary by R. Schulmann, Director, Einstein Papers Project, Boston University: March 19, 1999 [1/2 page].
Written commentary by R.W. Seidel, Director of the Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Computing, University of Minnesota: March 20 1999 [1/2 page].
Ely's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations, interview commentary by H. Ely, retired Chief of the Soviet Research and Development Plans Branch at the U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center in Charlottesville, VA, and founder of the Eneagram Institute of Albermarle, VA: December 19, 2003 [not transcribed.]
carton 1, folder 12

Post-War Black Operations in South America October 22, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (4 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:12-15.
carton 1, folder 13

Torture Interrogation of Nazis and Terrorists March 1, 1997

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:16.
carton 1, folder 14

Post-War Black Operations Revisited June 3, 2001

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:17-19.
carton 1, folder 15

The Military Chaplaincy and Spiritual Problems of Covert Operators December 1, 2003

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:20.
carton 1, folder 16

Rood's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations by Harold William Rood November 8, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:21-22.
carton 1, folder 17

Stapleton's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations by Robert Stapleton December 16-17, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:23-24.
carton 1, folder 18

Ely's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations December 9, 2003

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:25.
carton 1, folder 19

Supplementary material

 

Gelman, Boris, 1926-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1926, Korosteny, Ukraine; electrical engineer for power plants, retired, Luvov, Ukraine.
Oral history: October 5, 7, and 8, 1996, Philadelphia, PA.
Gelman enlisted in the Soviet army in 1943, fought in the Battle of the Order, and participated in the occupation of Prague. His patriotic service earned him the opportunity of post-war education, but he was driven from his field of community theater because of his Jewish background. Subsequently, he earned a master's degree in electrical engineering and developed a specialty in high voltage systems. He led work teams to power plants in the Ukraine, Hungary, and elsewhere, to install and maintain automated safety systems. His specialty was high voltage. After the Chernobyl explosion in 1986, Gelman was summoned to reactivate a power substation to provide electricity for building a 70-story "sarcophagus" to contain the radiation. The interview explores the interaction among politics, engineering, and anti-Semitism. The radiation exposure devastated Gelman's health, and he immigrated to the United States in 1993.
Hull's Assessment of Gelman's Narrative of the Chernobyl Cleanup, interview commentary by David Hull, March 6, 1997, Claremont, CA
As a physical anthropologist working for a private corporation, Hull had developed "medical phantoms" (dummies) to train x-ray technicians without exposing humans to radiation. The U.S. Navy purchased the phantoms for assorted radiological purposes. Hull assesses the scientific and medical aspects of Gelman's Chernobyl report.
carton 1, folder 20

A Jewish Engineer's Experience of the Chernobyl Clean-up October 5, 7, and 8, 1996

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (4 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:26-29.
carton 1, folder 21

Hull's Assessment of Gelman's Narrative of the Chernobyl Clean up. Interview with David Hull. March 16, 1997

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:30.
carton 1, folder 22

Supplementary material

 

Hormuth, Stefan E.

Scope and Content Note

Born 1949, Heidelberg, West Germany; Professor of Psychology, University of Dresden (now President of the University of Giessen).
Oral history: December 13, 1996; University of California, Irvine, CA
As a West German social psychologist, Hormuth took a major role in the reconstitution of East German universities after the reunification of Germany. He was privy to parts of the political-moral review to remove from psychology departments the faculty members who had collaborated with the East German secret police. The interview focuses on his social psychological understanding of the review process.
Written commentary by former East German Professor Lothar Sprung, Ph.D., Humboldt: September 4, 2000 University, Berlin, Germany [1 page].
carton 1, folder 23

Stasi Collaboration by East German Professors - Moral Assessment in an Institutional Context December 13, 1996

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:31-32.
carton 1, folder 24

Written commentary on the Oral History of Stefan Hormuth by Lothar and Helga Sprung September 4, 2000

 

Kendall, Kenneth, 1930-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1930, Marion, Illinois; Steel mill crane operator, retired, and Regional Vice-President of NARS
Oral history: January 14, 1996; April 6, 1997
Torture Interrogation in the Korean War, special interview on the theme of torture interrogation in the Korean War and of terrorists: April 6, 1996
Following heavy combat in the Korean War and trauma in the Hungnan Evacuation, Kendall served as a mechanic and chauffeur in the scientists' motor pool at the Nevada Test Site. The radiation exposure resulted in severe consequences to his health and may account for the unusual deaths of two children in infancy and the unusual illnesses of two daughters and a grandson. Kendall testified before the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments on October 21, 1994.
Interview commentary by Mildred Kendall, wife: January 28, 1996 [1/2hour telephone interview to Portage, Indiana; unintelligible recording.]
Effects of my Father's Radiation Exposure at the Nevada Test Site, interview commentary by Karen Batson, daughter: February 4, 1996, Evergreen CO
Karen Batson, born in 1957, daughter of Kenneth Kendall, discusses family issues pertaining to her father's army service at the Nevada Test Site, such as his belief his irradiation resulted in the early deaths of two children and her own inordinate medical problems and the deep silence between her and her father. She also considers her father's traumatization in the Korean War.
carton 1, folder 25

My Life - Not the Lives of My Children - for My Country January 14, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:33-35.
carton 1, folder 26

Torture Interrogation in the Korean War April 6, 1997

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:36-37.
carton 1, folder 27

Supplementary material

carton 1, folder 28

Effects of My Father's Radiation Exposure at the Nevada Test Site. Interview with Karen Kendall Batson February 4, 1996

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:38. [Recording on side 2 with Kendall's wife Mildred is defective]
 

Mercier, Paul [pseudonym]

carton 1, folder 29

Telephone interview regarding Vietnam experience as an Army medic August 24, 27, 2003

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:39-40.

Conditions of Use

Tapes 39-40 sealed until January 1, 2019.
 

Namgyal, Tashi, 1952-

Scope and Content Note

Born approx. 1952, Eastern Tibet, Joint Secretary of the Department of Security for the Tibetan Government-in-Exile, 1998-1999; Representative of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in Nepal, 1993-1998; 1992-1993 Deputy Secretary, Department of Health, Central Tibetan Administration.
Oral history: January 15 and 16, 2000, Seattle, Washington.
The army of the Peoples Republic of China overran the nomadic encampment of Namgyal's family around 1958 and left him orphaned. The interview covers the brutalities and organization of the Chinese occupation; Namgyal's early escape and two-year trek across Tibet with neighbors; his education and care at the CIA-supported Tibetan guerilla camp at Mustang, Nepal; his trek to India with Tibetan children destined for schools established by the Indian government; their meeting with the Dalai Lama; Namgyal's high school and college education; and his 25 years of service to the Tibetan government-in-exile.
Supplementary materials include recordings of Namgyal's addresses at the Athenaeum Claremont McKenna College, on September 27, 2000, and at the Santa Monica Zen Center, on September 28, 2000, with audience discussion.
carton 1, folder 30

Sanctity-Security Dilemma for the Tibetan Government-in-Exile January 15-16, 2000

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (4 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:41-44.
carton 1, folder 31

Supplementary material

 

Rich, Harvey, 1930-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1930, Montreal, Canada; Professor of Political Sociology, Emeritus, University of Calgary, Canada
October 5 and 6, 1996, Philadelphia, PA
Following a difficult childhood during the depression, Rich had been a Zionist youth leader in Montreal. In 1953, exhaustion from his political activities led to his voluntary, two-month commitment to Allan Memorial Hospital in Montreal, directed by Ewen Cameron (later exposed as an MKULTRA researcher for the CIA). As a patient of one of Cameron's assistants, Rich was subjected to thirteen electroshock and insulin shock treatments, without anesthesia. He afterwards embarked on a career as a political sociologist.
carton 1, folder 32

Shock Treatments at Ewen Cameron's Allen Memorial Institute October 5, 1996

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:45-47.
 

Rockwood, Lawrence

Scope and Content Note

Born 1958; former U.S. Army Captain in counterintelligence; lecturer in American history.
Two major themes alternate in Lawrence Rockwood's oral history: military life and religious practice. From a family dedicated to military service since the Civil War, Rockwood, like his father, began as an enlisted man and rose to officer, to democratize the officer elite. Raised as a Catholic by his mother, Rockwood aspired to be a monk, spent a year in seminary, suffered a religious crisis, and later transitioned to Buddhist practice under two Tibetan lamas. As head of U.S. Army counterintelligence during the 1994 United Nations intervention in Haiti, Capt. Rockwood conducted an unauthorized human rights inspection of a prison where Haitian political prisoners were tortured and murdered by the outgoing regime. The narrative explores the circumstances of this action, his court martial, and the moral significance.
carton 1, folder 33

Moral and Spiritual Initiative by a Counterintelligence Officer November 18, 2003

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (4 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:48-51.

Scope and Content Note

Interview of April 4, 2004 (3 sound cassettes) shelved As Phonotape 3713 C:52-54.
carton 1, folder 34

Supplementary material

 

Rood, Harold William, 1922-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1922; W. M. Keck Professor of International Strategic Studies at Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, CA.
Oral history: January 7, 2001, Claremont, CA. Interview jointly conducted by J.M. Arrigo and Grant Marler, doctoral candidate in philosophy at Claremont Graduate University and former U.S. Air Force intelligence officer.
Rood's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations, interview commentary on Ernest Garcia: November 8, 1995, Claremont, CA
Interview commentary on Robert Stapleton: June 3 and November 29, 1995, Claremont, CA
Rood's Views on Torture Interrogation of Terrorists, interview commentary on the theme of torture interrogation: February 27, 1997, Claremont, CA
A World War II forward observer in an U.S. Army infantry unit, Rood later served as an intelligence analyst and an instructor in field interrogation at military colleges. He also participated in preparation of a military handbook on the effects of nuclear weapons. The oral history tracks moral themes in Rood's professional life as World War II soldier, later Army intelligence officer, and professor of history, government, and political science.
Interview commentary by Robert Stapleton: December 17, 1995, Ventura, CA
carton 1, folder 35

Rood's Views on Torture Interrogation of Terrorists February 27, 1997

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:55-57.
carton 1, folder 36

Moral Development of an Intelligence Officer in the Clash of Civilizations January 9, 2001

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:58-59.

Conditions of Use

Page 25 and tape 59 sealed until January 1, 2020.
carton 1, folder 37

Supplementary material

 

Stapleton, Robert, 1923-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1923, Minnesota; retired U.S. Air Force officer and First Vice President of NARS.
Oral history: June 3 and 4, 1995, Ventura, CA.
Stapleton's Assessment of Garcia's Narratives of Black Operations, interview commentary on Ernest Garcia; Stapleton's Assessment of Tegtmeyer's Narrative of the Nevada Test Site, interview commentary on Raye Tegtmeyer; and Stapleton's Response to Rood's Assessment of Stapleton's Nuclear Test Site Narratives, interview commentary on H.W. Rood: December 16 and 17, 1995, Ventura, CA
A career U.S. Air Force pilot, Stapleton ferried scientists by helicopter at the South Pacific and Nevada Test Sites during 35 nuclear tests. In the Korean War and the Cuban missile crisis he analyzed aerial photographs for Air Force intelligence. After retirement, Stapleton became an independent nuclear activist and an advocate for native peoples harmed in the course of nuclear weapons development. Stapleton testified before the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments on January 30, 1995, in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Rood's Assessment of Stapleton's Narrative of Nuclear Testing, interview commentary by H.W. Rood: November 29, 1995, Claremont, CA
carton 1, folder 38

A U.S. Air Force Pilot's Witness to Devastation of Native Lands and Peoples in Nuclear Testing June 3-4, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (4 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:60-63.
carton 1, folder 39

Rood's Assessment of Stapleton's Narrative of Nuclear Testing. Interview with Harold William Rood November 29, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:64.
carton 1, folder 40

Stapleton's Response to Rood's Assessment December 17, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:65.
carton 1, folder 41

Supplementary material

 

Tegtmeyer, Raye, 1919-

Scope and Content Note

Born 1919, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Life Member of the National Association of Radiation Survivors
Oral history: July 13 and 16, 1995, Albuquerque, NM
Loyalty to Country and Betrayal by Country, Revisited, follow up interview, January 2, 2001.
Tegtmeyer was a career U.S. Air Force safety director and undercover intelligence officer, assisted by a photographic memory. He served at the Berlin Airlift and the Nevada Test Site, where he charted fall-out patterns. From 1950 to 1959 he was both a witting and unwitting subject of radiation experiments, with devastating consequences to his health and family relationships. The interview explores Tegtmeyer's agency and victimization in nuclear weapons development, with the recurring theme of his experience as a congenital hermaphrodite in military settings.
Interview commentary by Ernest Garcia: October 22, 1995
Stapleton's Assessment of Tegtmeyer's Narratives of the Nevada Test Site, interview commentary by Robert Stapleton, December 16, 1995
My Trip to the Trinity Test Site with Major Raye Tegtmeyer, interview report by Nellie Amondson, Professor of Mathematics, San Diego Community College, on her day trip with R. Tegtmeyer to Trinity Test Site and to his former home at Kirkland Air Force Base: July 17, 1995, Albuquerque, NM.
Amondson, born in 1922, was present during the initial oral history interview of Raye Tegtmeyer at the 1995 conference of the National Association of Radiation Survivors in Albuquerque, NM. She accompanied Raye Tegtmeyer on a conference field trip to Trinity Test Site and afterward to Kirkland Air Force base, where he had served. Amondson's account reaches more deeply into Tegtmeyer's life as a dedicated military man who found himself changing gender in middle age after nine years of radiation experiments.
carton 1, folder 42

Loyalty to Country and Betrayal by Country July 13, 16, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (3 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:66-68.
carton 1, folder 43

Additional interviews 1995, 2004

Scope and Content Note

Original interviews (2 sound cassettes) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:69-70.
carton 1, folder 44

My Trip to the Trinity Test Site with Major Ray Tegtmeyer. Interview with Nellie Amondson. July 17, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:71.
carton 1, folder 45

Commentary on Raye Tegtmeyer. Excerpt from Ernest Garcia Interview. October 22, 1995

carton 1, folder 46

Stapleton's Assessment of Tegtmeyer's Narratives of the Nevada Test Site. Interview with Robert Stapleton. December 16, 1995

Scope and Content Note

Original interview (1 sound cassette) shelved as Phonotape 3713 C:72.
carton 1, folder 47

Supplementary material

carton 1, folder 48

God, Country, Honor, Family. Autobiography of Raye Tegtmeyer 2000