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Finding Aid for the Lloyd E. Cotsen Cuneiform Tablets collection, ca. 3200 -1500 B.C.E.
1883  
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Table of contents What's This?

Container List

Box 1

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 31718.1  School text, lexical exercise of divine epithets Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Ashgi of the animal pen

2. Ashgi of the long-lasting animal pen

3. Wise Ashgi
Physical Description: 3 1/4" diameter x 5/8" depth, lentil joined from fragments
Condition: A lenticular tablet that has been broken into at least six pieces and repaired with adhesive. The repairs are best viewed from the unincised face. This face has multiple losses and has adhesive residue on much of the surface as well as in cracks. The incised face has a strange surface texture, perhaps a light textile or finger print impression? There are two side-by-side gouges on this face that appear to have been made with a modern tool.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student exercise listing the epithets for the deity Ashgi.
Box 1

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 31718.2  School text, lexical exercise of bird names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. The esig bird

2. The shulu bird

3. The gakad bird
Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 3/8" depth, lentil
Condition: A small lenticular tablet of light yellow-baff clay. The tablet has multiple losses and is actively crumbling and powdery. There are three main areas of loss along the edge. The uninscribed face has small hairline cracks throughout. The incised face has areas of dark concretion scattered overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary text is a student's vocabulary practice for writing different types of birds.
Box 1

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 31718.3  School text, lexical exercise of wooden items Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 3/8" diameter x 1" depth, lentil with erasures
Condition: Lenticular tablet that is actively crumbling. The tablet has some deep complete and incomplete cracks on the inscribed face and over portions of the edge. There are other shallower incomplete cracks overall. There are surface losses on the inscribed face that obscure portions of the cuneiform inscriptions. The uninscribed surface is uneven: there are some rough, slightly raised patches of clay as well as some pit-like losses overall. There is a black spot near the edge, as well as some mottled black areas overall. There is some spalling visible on one portion of the edge.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of wooden objects.
Box 1

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 31719.1  School text, lexical exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. A matted place

2. A rented place

3. A terrace
Physical Description: 2 1/2" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: A small, lenticular tablet. There is one loss along the edge, primarily on the incised face. The surface of the incised face has a strange sheen and texture and may be coated with an unknown substance. The unincised face has white concretions, possibly salts, scattered all over the surface and in small cracks and depressions. There is a small, square paper label adhered to the uninscribed face that reads, "1".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 1

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 31719.2  School text, lexical exercise of types of reed Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. Cut reed

2. Strong reed
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 7/8" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached, inscribed on reverse
Condition: A lenticular tablet of grayish-brown clay. There are incomplete, but deep, cracks scattered overall- primarily along the edge showing on the incised face and radiating out from the loss on the edge. On the unincised face cracks run from the edge loss and are scattered across other areas as well. The loss to the edge is roughly crescent shaped and includes a gouge left by a tool. This was probably a modern tool used during excavation, which caused the loss. There are white concretions scattered across the surface of both faces; these may be salts. There is a small, square paper label marked "2" adhered to the unincised face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary exercise lists different types of reed, a plentiful resource in ancient Mesopotamia.
Box 1

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 31719.3  School text, grammatical exercise with the verb "to grow" Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. Growing barley

2. Growing barley
Physical Description: 2 9/16" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: A small lenticular tablet with a large gouge and loss on the uninscribed (convex) face. The gouge was probably made by a modern tool when the object was excavated. This loss and gouge have no surface patina. There is a small, white paper label marked "3" adhered to the uninscribed face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This text contains a student's practice writing short sentences.
Box 1

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 31719.4a-b  School text, lexical exercise of bird names Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. The arabu bird

2. The UD-sha bird

3. The TAR bird
Physical Description: 3" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has broken into two pieces. These two pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is a deep loss next to the break near the center of the tablet on the convex, uninscribed face. There are other, shallower surface losses around the break and the deep loss. There are several incomplete cracks overall. There are white concretions visible overall, but are particularly concentrated on the area with losses. There are some shallow gouge marks on the inscribed face that might have been made when the clay was still wet, based on the patina. There is a small, rectangular label adhered to the uninscribed face near the edge with a typed number "4".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary text is a student's vocabulary practice for writing different types of birds.
Box 1

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 31719.5  School text, lexical exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. To look at

2. …
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has several incomplete cracks throughout, mostly on the convex, uninscribed face. There is a gouge mark on the uninscribed face that was most likely made by a modern tool. There are some shallow surface losses around this gouge. There is a small loss on one part of the edge and other minor losses to the surface overall. There are some white concretions visible overall. There is a small, cream-colored label adhered to the uninscribed face with a typed number "5".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 1

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 31719.6  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has incomplete cracks throughout. There are some gouge marks on the uninscribed face made by a modern tool. There are a few other surface losses along the edge and on the inscribed face. There is a pit-like gouge on the inscirbed face -- it is difficult to tell if this was made while the clay was still wet or after the tablet had dried. There is a small, cream-colored label adhered to the convex face near the edge with an underlined, typed number "6". There is a white substance visible on portions of the surface. There are also some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
Box 1

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 31719.7  School text, lexical exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. …

2. …

3. A beard

4. A wool beard
Physical Description: 2 5/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has some incomplete cracks throughout. There is a gouge mark that runs from one of the edges to the surface of the uninscribed face. This mark was made with a modern tool. There is a minor loss at part of the edge on the inscribed face as well as some minor spalling. There are other minor surface losses overall. There are white concretions visible overall. There is a small cream-colored label with a typed number "7" adhered to the uninscribed face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 1

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 31719.8  School text, lexical exercise of types of pots Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. A pot with a perforated bottom

2. A brewing vat
Physical Description: 2 15/16" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has several incomplete cracks overall on the uninscribed face. There cracks may possibly lead to spalling (?) There are some minor surface losses overall. There are some white concrections visible overall. There is a small, cream-colored label adhered to the uninscribed face near the edge that has a typed number "8".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This short exercise lists a student's practice vocabulary for types of pots.
Box 1

Item: 12 Cotsen ID: 31719.9  School text, lexical exercise of barley Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. Barley and salt

2. Barley for sowing
Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has several incomplete cracks on the uninscribed face, possibly this is the beginning stages of spalling (?). On this same face there are some surface losses, possibly from spalling, as well as some other small losess. There are several white concretions visible overall. There is a small cream-colored label adhered to the uninscribed face that has an underlined typed number "9".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This short exercise lists a student's practice vocabulary for barley.
Box 1

Item: 13 Cotsen ID: 31719.10  School text, lexical exercise for "if" Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. if

2. if
Physical Description: 2 5/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil fragment with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet fragment has a large loss at one end. The edge at this loss is jagged and uneven. There is a gouge on this edge that most likely was made with a modern tool. There are several incomplete cracks on the uninscribed face -- possibly these are an indication that the surface on this face is starting to spall. There are some surface losses on this face, possibly from spalling. There are several white concretions visible overall. There is a small, cream-colored label with a typed number "10" adhered to the uninscribed face near the edge with the loss.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This short exercise contains a student practicing writing "if".
Box 1

Item: 14 Cotsen ID: 31719.11  School text, lexical exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. unknown type of reed

2. unknown type of reed
Physical Description: 2 1/2" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has some incomplete cracks on the uninscribed face. There are some very minor losses to the surface of the uninscribed face. There are some small, white concretions visible on the surface overall. There is a small, cream-colored label with a typed "11" adhered to the uninscribed face near the edge.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 1

Item: 15 Cotsen ID: 31719.12  School text, Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 3/16" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This small, lenticular tablet is made of a grayish-brown clay. There is a small loss to the edge on the incised face. There is a one-inch gouge in the center of the unincised face, which is more convex that the opposite (flat) face. A small, square paper label marked "12" is adhered to the unincised face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 2

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 31719.13  School text, lexical exercise of types of beer Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. Beer bread

2. Moist beer bread
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached and the reverse inscribed and worn
Condition: A lenticular tablet of light brown-gray clay. There is a loss along the edge, primarily to the more convex, uninscribed face. The loss is approximately 1 3/4-inches long. There is an incomplete crack that penetrates from one face to the other but has not spread across the diameter of the tablet. The uninscribed face has a scattering of white accretions, probably salt crystals. In one area the white material is deposited under a small crack and appears to be in the process of causing spalling. There is a small, square white paper label adhered to the uninscribed side that reads, "13".
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This brief exercise is a student's vocabulary practice in writing types of beer, a popular commodity in ancient Mesopotamia.
Box 2

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 31719.14  School text Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. The sun god brings the bread,

2. He knows its words.

3. The lady brings the bread,

4. She knows its life.
Physical Description: 3 1/8" diameter x 5/8" depth, lentil with an adhesive label attached
Condition: This lenticular tablet has a lot of damage to its surface on the inscribed face. There are several shallow losses, many of which are circular. Possibly these were made with a tool (?). On the uninscribed face, there are several incomplete cracks and a lot of spalling. There is a gouge near one edge and scratch marks overall although it is unclear if these were made while the clay was still wet, or after the tablet dried. There are some other minor chips to the surface on this face and on the edges. The surface of the tablet, particularly on the inscribed face is a mottled black and brown color. There are white concretions visible overall. There is a small, cream-colored label typed with the number "14", adhered to the uninscribed face near the edge.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

The contents of this student exercise are unclear.
Box 2

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 31719.15a-c  School text, lexical exercise of wooden parts of the plow Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. The platform of the plow

2. The vessel of the plow

3. The … of the plow
Physical Description: 3" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil joined from fragments with an adhesive label attached
Condition: Lenticular tablet that has broken into three pieces. These three pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. This clear adhesive is visible on the surface of the tablet along the breaks. There are losses long the breaks as well as two areas with losses along the edge that extend across the surface of the tablet, particularly on the inscribed face. There is a grooved gouge mark running across this same face, as if the clay was roughly scraped. It is difficult to tell if this was made while the clay was still wet or if it was made after the tablet had dried. There are a few incomplete cracks on the uninscribed face near a break and area with losses. There some white concretions visible, mostly on the inscribed face along a portion of the breaks and a portion of the losses around the breaks. There are some minor surface losses overall. Most of the tablet is tan-colored with some translucent black spots. Some portions of the tablet, mostly near the edges are a mottled cream color. This looks to be a thin layer of a white substance, possible a deposit (?). There is a small, cream-colored label with a typed number "15" that is adhered to the uninscribed face near an edge.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a practice list of the wooden parts of the plow.
Box 2

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 38770  School text, literary exercise from Iddin-Dagan B Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. He has raised you,

2. he has placed the foreign lands at your feet.

3. Enlil.
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular cuneiform tablet made of chocolate brown clay. There is a loss at one edge that reveals a lighter brown substance- this substance may be the interior clay of the tablet, or it may be brown fill that is partially filling the break. A small light brown deposit on the surface of the tablet in this same area may be dried fill. About an inch away from the break there are two round gouges on the face. Diagonally across the face from the break, the edge of the tablet is flat rather than curved. This area has the same patina as the rest of the face, so if it is the result of damage, it is old damage. The opposite face also shows the break and loss already described, but it is less prominent on this face. There is a shallow gouge or chip near the loss, toward the center of the face. Near the flattened edge of the tablet, there is a small, oblong hole that reveals part of the interior of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is from a praise poem of Iddin-Dagan (version B), who was king under the First Dynasty of Isin, from 1974-1954 BCE. This excerpt includes lines 3-5.
Box 2

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 38771  School text, mathematical exercise Old Akkadian Period (c. 2340-2200 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/4" height x 1 3/4" width x 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Small, rectangular tablet of light brown clay, inscribed on one face only. One corner of the tablet is lost, and this damage is visible on both faces. On the inscribed face, there is an area of spalling next to the lost corner that extends 2/3 of the way across the face. On the plain face, there is a deep, diagonal gouge next to the lost corner. At the opposite end of the plain face, there is a small, shallow gouge near the edge. There are several spots of dark brown discoloration on the plain face.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is a student's practice at math problems.
Box 2

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 40701  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 2 15/16" height x 1 15/16" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. The tablet has uneven edges, this is possibly due to the original shape of the tablet and some losses. One of the corners is diagonal. It is difficult to gauge whether or not this is the result of the clay being pressed in while wet or if it is from a later loss. One end of the tablet is narrower than the other in width. It seems likely that this was the original shape of the tablet and not a result of losses from damage. One of the faces has losses to the surface as well as some white concretions. The other face has a small, round gouge, although it is not clear what caused this damage. There are also a few cracks on the edges.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound. Notice that the tablet turns left-to-right not top-to-bottom, as is customary.
Box 2

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 40702  School text, sign exercise Old Akkadian- Ur III Period (c. 2340-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. Lord
Physical Description: 2 1/16" height x 1 1/2" width x 9/16" depth, rectangular tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. The shape of the tablet is slightly irregular: two of the top corners were pressed in, most likely while the clay was wet. Another corner has a loss. There are incomplete cracks on the uninscribed face. The surface of the face is uneven with a few depressions, which were most likely made when the clay was still wet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is practicing writing the EN sign ("lord").
Box 2

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40703  School text, sign exercise from Proto-diri Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 2" width x 1 1/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay that has some losses at three of its corners. There are some groove marks and depressions on the edges of the tablet. While most of these marks seem to be minor scratches or losses to the surface, a few of the marks on the thickest edge were possibly made by an implement. Possibly, these marks were made when the clay was wet, though it is difficult to tell. There is a black patina with a little sheen on many of the raised areas of the surface; possibly this is a result of handling or wear.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a beginner student's practice writing compound signs. The text has been overwritten at least once making it difficult to reconstruct the contents of the tablet.
Box 2

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 40704  School text, lexical exercise of words beginning with "ki" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. A true place.

2. The stone was found.
Physical Description: 2 5/8" height x 2 3/8" width x 1 1/8" depth, baked square single column tablet
Condition: Square-shaped tablet with one corner pressed in, most likely when the clay was still wet. There are a few losses on the inscribed face near the edges and one circular loss along one edge. The uninscribed face has an uneven surface- there are some grooves and ditches where it looks like the clay was pressed or pinched when wet during the molding process. On this same side, there is also a small, circular gouge on the surface, possibly made by an implement. While the patina is quite dark overall, there are notably some black spots on one edge.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise lists vocabulary that begin with "ki". This type of acrographic grouping was popular in ancient Mesopotamian practice vocabularies.
Box 2

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 40705  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 1 1/8" depth, lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that appears to be stable. There are small losses to the surface of the convex face of the tablet. There are small, incomplete cracks that run throughout the flat face of the tablet. Adhesive has been applied to many of these cracks. There are deeps erasure marks on this same side, made when the clay was wet. There are very few cuneiform impressions visible on either side. There are a few small cream-colored concretions visible on the convex face.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This math problem is largely erased and difficult to reconstruct.
Box 2

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 40706  School text, literary exercise from a variant version of Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. In the ‘Temple of the Mountain’

2. Up to the temple of Enlil.
Physical Description: 3 5/8" diameter x 1" depth, baked lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet appears to be in stable condition. There are minor losses on the surfaces of both faces. There appears to be some minor spalling on the flat face of the tablet. There is a complete crack running from one edge to approximately the center of tablet. This crack is also running along one of the incised horizontal lines on the flat face. There is also a small, circular pit on this same face, possibly made by an implement, that does not look to be a part of the existing cuneifrom impressions. There are also very tiny spots with some sheen near the edge on the flat face that is possibly some coating.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is an advanced student's exercise excerpt from the popular Gilgamesh myths.
Box 2

Item: 12 Cotsen ID: 40707a-b  School text, lexical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/8" diameter x 7/8" depth, lentil joined from fragments with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that has been broken approximately in half. The two pieces have been reattached with adhesive and the breaks have been filled with clay or clay-like substance. There is a small triangular loss near one end of the break on the surface of the flat face. That possibly was reattached or filled. There is a small loss on the edge at the other end of the break. About a quarter of the surface on the flat face has a sheen-possibly this is some coating or from wear.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's vocabulary practice includes Akkadian term for ambidexterous, which has only two other attestations.
Box 2

Item: 13 Cotsen ID: 40708  School text, literary exercise from a proverb Ur III - Old Babylonian Period (c. 2100-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. He slept peacefully among the mountains.
Physical Description: 3 1/4" diameter x 1 3/8" depth, baked lentil
Condition: Lenticular tablet with multiple mounds of mineral deposits overall, though located primarily near the edges. The convex face has some minor surface abrasions.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is an advanced student's exercise in writing an unidentified proverb.
Box 2

Item: 14 Cotsen ID: 40710a-c  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'She is a lady'

2. 'She is a lady'

3. 'The lady of the abzu'
Physical Description: 3 7/16" diameter x 1" depth, baked red color lentil joined from fragments with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that has broken apart in three pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are some losses overall, particularly along the breaks and the edges. Gouges in one area at an edge look to have been caused by a modern tool. Another notable loss is a rectangular chunk near the center on the surface of the flat face. There are other incomplete cracks overall on both faces and some spalling on the flat face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a student's practice writing personal names.
Box 3

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52174.23a  School text, legal exercise of a lawsuit Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 5/8" height x 2 1/16" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet made of dark brown (almost black) clay. On one face, the corner has a scrape that appears to be caused by a modern tool- the clay here is lighter in color than the rest of the tablet. There is a small, chipped loss at one corner. The opposite face has a small chip or gouge near center. This damage is ancient, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise contains a lawsuit judgment between Ilaba-bani and Qurud-Ishtar. Qurud-Ishtar must compensate Ila-bani for poor wall maintenance that allowed Ila-bani's possessions to be stolen. This is a duplicate of 52174.23b.
Box 3

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52174.23b, a-c  School text, legal exercise of a lawsuit Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 5/8" height x 2 1/8" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments with the reverse effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet made of brown clay that has broken into three pieces. The three pieces have been attached with an adhesive. One of the breaks runs across the center of the tablet; the other break runs from one corner to the center. On the convex face, there are patches of adhesive visible along these breaks. On the same face are large losses along the crack, including one particularly deep loss close to the center. There are other, smaller losses visible overall on this face, creating a rough surface. It is unclear whether these losses are modern or ancient. There are some black patches and white accretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise contains a lawsuit judgment between Ilaba-bani and Qurud-Ishtar. Qurud-Ishtar must compensate Ila-bani for poor wall maintenance that allowed Ila-bani's possessions to be stolen. This is a duplicate of 52174.23a
Box 3

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52175a-b  School text, legal exercise of an adoption contract Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 1/2" height x 2 1/4" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that appears to have broken into two pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are several complete and incomplete cracks overall, most of which have been covered with a clear adhesive. This adhesive covers areas around the cracks as well. There are two pieces of a fibrous white material (possibly paper) adhered to the surface of the adhesive in one corner on the flat face. On this same face, there is a loss that looks modern (based on the patina) as well as a chip along the possible break. There is a loss on the convex face that appears to at least partially have been caused by a modern tool, A portion of this loss, however, may have been made when the clay was still wet. There is another shallow loss on this face, but it is difficult to tell when it was made. The surface of the tablet is a mottled tan and dark brown color. There are white concretions visible overall. The tablet is actively crumbling.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This text contains a student's practice writing an adoption contract.
Box 3

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52176  School text, legal exercise of a loan contract Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 2" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a loss along one short edge. On one face there are a few spots of clear adhesive filling cracks along this break. There is a shallow spot of spalling next to part of this adhesive. One the opposite face there are two smooth, diagonal gouges along the broken edge. These appear to be made by a strike from a modern tool because the clay here is a lighter color than the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is a student practice writing a loan contract for silver. Note that the personal names the same as 52178.
Box 3

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52177a-c  School text, legal exercise of an adoption contract Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 7/8" height x 2 1/4" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet that appears to have broken into three pieces. These pieces have been reattached with a clear adhesive. The adhesive is also visible on the surface along some portions of the breaks. There are also some incomplete cracks stemming from these breaks. A portion of one of these cracks is also covered with a clear adhesive. There are some losses along the breaks. Notably, there is one semi-circular chunk lost along one of the breaks near an edge. Three of the corners have minor losses. The fourth corner has a large gouge made with a modern tool. Next to this gouge on one edge is second gouge with a rougher surface. It is unclear if this second gouge was made when the clay was still wet or after the clay had dried. There are some small, white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice tablet is an adoption contract. It includes a date that names Rim- Suen, the 10th king of the Larsa dynasty, who reigned from 1822-1763 BCE.
Box 3

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52179a-b  School text, legal exercise of a sale contract Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 7/8" height x 2 1/8" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has been broken into two pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The adhesive is visible on the surface around the break in some areas. On one face is a long, incomplete crack running from one corner with a loss to the center, with smaller incomplete cracks branching out in some spots. On the other face, there is another incomplete crack that runs from one corner to a point on the break. Adhesive has also been applied to these cracks and the surface around the cracks. There is a large loss along the break near one edge; a large chunk is missing. There are smaller losses along the rest of the break creating gaps and crevices. It is possible that a portion of the break on one face has been filled. On this same face, there is another loss to the surface that is partially covered with adhesive and possibly the remains of a fill. Along the edge with the large loss, there are four pit-like losses, possibly made by an implement. There are spots and lines of white-grey concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's exercise in writing a contract for the sale of land, a task with which every scribe needed to be proficient.
Box 3

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52178a-b  School text, legal exercise of a loan contract Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4" height x 2 1/16" width x 5/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. The tablet has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The adhesive was also applied to the surface around the break. There are two complete and one incomplete cracks near one corner on which adhesive have also been applied. There are a few more incomplete cracks in the same area that are not covered with adhesive. There are some losses on the surface near the break as well as some small gaps caused by losses. There are some cream-colored concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice contract is for a loan of silver from the king to Lu-Nanna in order to buy precious stones and prestige goods for the deity Ninsianna. The same personal names are used in 52176.
Box 3

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52181  School text, mathematical exercise of surveying Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 1 5/8" height x 1 5/8" width x 7/8" depth, square tablet
Condition: Square tablet of grey-tan clay with a few minor losses to the surface. The surface has a few rough patches and areas where the surface is blackened. There are several white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's drawing of a plan of a rectangular plot of land. The dimensions are given on reverse.
Box 3

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52180  School text, mathematical exercise of surveying Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3" height x 3 7/16" width x 1 1/8" depth, rectangular tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with several complete and incomplete cracks throughout. There are losses at one corner and minor losses in another corner. There are also minor losses to the surface of the tablet overall. There are white and tan concretions visible on the surface overall. There is one noticeable deposit near one corner -- this could possibly be dirt.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drawing the layout of a large estate complete with irrigation and field boundaries. The reverse has been erased.
Box 4

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40709a-c  School text, literary exercise from Lipit-Eshtar B Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. The foundations of his throne

2. He made firm for you

3. On the orders

4. of An and Enlil.
Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 7/8" depth, baked lentil joined from fragments
Condition: Lenticular tablet broken approximately in half, with the two pieces reattached with an adhesive. There is another complete crack near the edge. There is an incomplete crack on the face with cuneiform impressions that runs roughly parallel to the break from one edge to the center of the tablet on this same side. There is a loss at one edge, a large portion of which has been re-attached with adhesive. There is another loss along an edge. Near this loss are some additional chip marks on the surface of the flat face. The convex face has some incomplete cracks.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is an excerpt from Lipit-Eshtar's Praise in the Eduba (lines 54-55).
Box 4

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40711a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names and a drawing exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too fragmentary to translate)
Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 7/8" depth, lentil with surface damage
Condition: Lenticular tablet with a third of the flat face (the inscribed face) scraped off, probably while the clay was still wet. This same face is partially coated. There is a small loss on this same face that looks to have been reattached with adhesive. There is more scraping on the domed face at the edge near the drawing of a face, also most likely scraped while the clay was still wet. On this same side, there are also some small gouge marks near the center of the tablet. There are a few white concretions visible on the surface overall.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a drawing of a face on the reverse. The obverse is too illegible to reconstruct.
Box 4

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 40712a-c  School text, literary exercise of proverbs Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/4" height x 3 1/16" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet broken in three pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. This adhesive has also been applied to the face of the tablet along the breaks. One piece was slightly misaligned during reattachement, as there is a gap between this piece and the other two pieces at the break. There are chunks of tablet missing along the breaks, especially at the convergence point of the breaks in the center. Three of the four corners have losses. One of these corners has additional losses that extend across the surface of both faces. The surface of the convex face in this area is covered with adhesive.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is an advanced student's exercise in writing an unidentified proverb.
Box 4

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 40713a-b  School text, literary exercise from a hymn to Nergal Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Nergal

2. existing power being raised

3. he shall stretch it out on the full land.
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 3 1/8" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with some losses at two of the corners. Near one of these corners on the convex face is another loss, a portion of which has been reattached with adhesive. The adhesive is also visible on a portion of the surface near the break. On this same side, there are minor chips to the surface. There is one larger chip near a corner. On the flat face (with cuneiform impressions) there are a few small losses and some surface abrasions. There is also a small, incomplete crack near one side, and a hole, possibly made by an implement near one corner.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student practice is a praise to the underworld deity Nergal with no known parallel yet.
Box 4

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 40714  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 3" width x 1" depth, square single column tablet
Condition: Square tablet fragment with a loss of approximately one quarter of the tablet in one corner. There are some minor, incomplete cracks on the flat face and some small losses to the surface of the domed face. There is an impression near one corner that does not look to be part of the cuneiform impressions. There is also an orange spot on one side edge. Where the tablet has been broken, the sides are uneven. There are some small, imcomplete cracks on the other sides.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a student's practice writing personal names. This tablet is signed by its scribe, Sin-man(sum).
Box 4

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 40715  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. 'The sun god …'

2. 'The sun god is exalted'

3. 'The sun god is exalted'

4. 'The sun god ...'

5. 'The brother'

Reverse (unfinished)
Physical Description: 2 9/16" height x 1 5/8" width x 13/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. There are considerable losses to one corner, especially on the face with only a few cuneiform impressions. There are a few other losses, both along edges. There are white concretions overall. There is a slight sheen to a portion of the surface on the face with more cuneiform impressions; possibly this is some coating.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner exercise is a student's practice writing personal names. The reverse is unfinished.
Box 4

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 40716  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 3/4" height x 4 1/4" width x 1 1/8" depth, large rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with losses at all four corners. One corner is covered with a patch of adhesive. There is also a small patch of white fibers adhered to the surface of this adhesive. There are two deep gouges on the flat face as well as other more shallow losses to the surface. There are some shallow groove marks on the convex face -- possibly this was done while the clay was still wet. There are other very minor scores on this surface. There is a portion of one edge where it looks like a loss has been reattached with adhesive and it is possible that portions of the breaks have been filled. A portion of this area is noticeably raised from the rest of the surface- it is possible this was a fill, or just part of the makeup of the original tablet. There are several areas overall where there are white or tan concretions. A few of these areas on the convex face also have some black concretions.
Language of Material: West Semitic

Scope and Content Note

This is an unfinished student's practice tablet.
Box 4

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40717  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'My god is …

2. 'He is the true heir

3. …

4. 'Suen defeats

5. …

6. 'His root is sweet
Physical Description: 3 5/16" height x 2 5/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. The flat face has an incomplete crack running down the center. There is also a groove mark on one side of the tablet that looks like it was made with an implement while the clay was still wet. There is a small loss near one corner on this same face. There are some shallow marks on the convex face that seems to be remains of cuneiform impressions (in addition to the clearly impressed cuneiform script at one side). Possibly some of the inscriptions have worn away as there are no groove lines indicating scraping. There is also some minor spalling on this face. There are white concretions overall as well as some salt crystals. There are two irregularities on the edges where it looks like the clay was not completely smoothed or pressed down, or something hit the clay while it was still wet.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner exercise is a student's practice writing personal names.
Box 4

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 40718  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "ib-ku" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'Kabta wept';

2. 'Martu wept'

3. 'Ishum wept'

4. …

5. …

6. 'Urma wept';

7. …

8. …

9. …

10. …
Physical Description: 5" height x 4 1/8" width x 1 1/8" depth, large rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a large loss to one corner and a smaller loss in another corner. There are a few minor losses to the surface of this face, including two small gashes that look to have been made when the clay was still wet. The convex face also has a few minor surface losses. One of the edges has six, shallow circular indentations, possibly made with an implement when the clay was still wet. There are small white concretions overall.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "ib". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies. Notice the mathematical calculations scribbled over lexical list on the reverse.
Box 4

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 40719a-c  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 3/4" height x 1 3/4" width x 11/16" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet of red-brown clay that has been broken into three pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is a gash-like loss near one edge on the inscribed face and another minor surface loss near another edge. There is a rectangular loss on the surface of the uninscribed face close to the center of the tablet. There is another loss on one edge and some minor chipping near two of the corners.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This practice letter written by a student concerns quantities of barley exchanged between Ahum and Sin-nada.
Box 4

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 40720  Letter with envelope and sealing from king Rim-Suen of Larsa Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 3/16" height x 2 3/8" width x 1 3/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet with a partial envelope on the obverse face
Condition: Long, rectangular tablet with a partial "envelop" still intact on one face. The face with the envelop layer intact has considerable losses and it appears as if the envelop has been chipped away. One corner of the tablet has been broken and lost. An unknown adhesive has been applied in this corner. The clay appears relatively well fired.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This royal letter is from king Rim-Suen to Suen-Imguranni. The Old Babylonian sealing is partially preserved on envelope. Rim-Suen ruled from 1822-1763 BCE.
Box 5

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52182a-b  School text, mathematical exercise of surveying Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 7/16" width x 1 1/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. This adhesive has also been applied to the surface around the break. There are some losses along the break creating gaps and crevices between the two pieces. On one face, there are four groove marks near one side that seem to have been made by a modern implement. There is another groove mark on one edge. There are other minor surface losses and a few spots of adhesive overall. There are white concretions throughout, particularly on the convex face.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains the measurements for several fields.
Box 5

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52184  School text, administrative exercise of rations for weavers Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/8" height x 2" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet in good condition. There is an incomplete crack on one face that runs from one edge to its opposite edge. There are two minor surface losses on the flat face. One of these losses (closer to the center of the tablet) seems to have been made by a modern tool. There is some minor spalling and a shallow scratch on one edge. There are white concretions visible overall, though particularly on one side of the flat face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains a list of rations as payments to weavers. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 5

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52183a-b  School text, administrative exercise of rations for weavers Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 1 13/16" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay that has broken into two, possibly three pieces. (There is one crack visible on one side and edge that is possibly filled or covered with dirt on the other side, therefore it is difficult to tell if it is a break or an incomplete crack.) These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are several incomplete cracks on one half of the tablet. There are a number of losses along the clear break line on both faces. A sizeable chunk is missing on one face. In this same ditch, another chunk looks like it was either a loss that has been reattached or has complete cracks that may cause it to break off in the future. There are two corners with some losses as well as some losses on the surface near one edge. These two areas with losses are covered with an adhesive. There are white concretions visible overall, particularly in the grooves of the cuneiform impressions.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains a list of rations as payments to weavers. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 5

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52185a-b  School text, administrative exercise of rations for weavers Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/8" height x 1 7/8" width x 5/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. There are several incomplete cracks on the flat face of this tablet. A portion of one of these cracks appears to have had an adhesive or coating applied to it. There are losses on two corners. Both corners with these losses have adhesive applied on the surface. There is a loss on a portion of an edge next to one of these corners that has been reattached with an adhesive. It seems like portions of the break have been filled. The surface in this area is uneven and any previously existing script is unreadable. There are some minor losses to the surface, particularly on the flat face. There is one edge that has three blackened spots marking the surface. Another edge has two similarly sized spots, though not blackened, the outlines of which look to be shallowly incised. It is unclear what these markings are. There are white concretions visible throughout, particularly on the flat face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains a list of rations as payments to weavers. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 5

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52186  School text, administrative exercise of rations for weavers Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 7/16" height x 2 1/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with several incomplete cracks. The majority of these cracks are visible on the flat face. There is one corner with two incomplete cracks that almost meet at both ends -- this could possibly cause a piece of that corner to break apart in the future. There is adhesive covering portions of one of the cracks in this corner. There are some minor surface losses: two notable ones near one edge and a strip of surface losses on the flat face. There are some gouge marks next to this strip that were created with a modern tool. Two of these losses (one near the corner edge, the other is the strip) are covered with adhesive. There are mineral deposits visible on the flat face, possibly some are salt crystals. There are some small mounds of deposits in the strip of surface losses. There are a few white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains a list of rations as payments to weavers. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 5

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52187  School text, letter exercise with envelope Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 9/16" height x 1 3/4" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet with an inscribed envelope covering 75% of the tablet surface
Condition: Rectangular envelope fragment with tablet inside. Half of one face and side of the envelope fragment is missing. The existing edges at this loss are jagged and have a powdery texture. There are some incomplete cracks overall on the envelope fragment as well as some surface losses. There are some cuneiform impressions visible on one face. These impressions are flanked by surface losses in one corner and losses to the other corner so any other impression that may have existed in that area are gone. The tablet has losses in one corner and along an edge (where a portion of the envelope fragment is also gone). Only a portion of the tablet is visible (where the envelope has broken anwyway). The edges where there are losses also have a powdery texture. There are white concretions visible mostly on one side of the revealed portion of the tablet and on one edhe of the envelope fragment.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise of writing a letter includes the envelope, which has a short inscription on it.
Box 5

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52188  School text, lexical exercise from Early Dynastic Food and mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

(3 lines missing)

4'. …

5'. …

6'. …

7'. n units of baked bread

8'. n units of baked bread

9'. n units of baked bread

10'. n units of baked bread

11'. n units of baked bread

(remaining lines missing)

Column 2

(three lines missing)

4'. Half bread

5'. A type of bread

6'. …

7'. A baked product

8'. Baked products

9'. …

(remaining lines missing)

Column 3

(3 lines missing)

4'. A cake

5'. Cakes

6'. …

7'. A cake

8'. A cake

(remaining lines missing)

Reverse

(effaced)
Physical Description: 5 5/8" height x 4 3/4" width x 1 7/8" depth, large triangular multi-column fragment
Condition: All edges of this triangular tablet fragment are uneven and jagged in some areas from losses. There are considerable losses to the surface of the two faces, partially from spalling. There are incomplete cracks overall. There are some white concretions visible overall. The tablet fragment is actively crumbling in some areas.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a vocabulary exercise copied from the Early Dynastic food list on the obverse and a mathematical exericse on the reverse.
Box 5

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52190  School text, administrative exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. n liters of cereal

2. 20 liters of cereal

3. 30 liters of barley

4. 10 liters of barley seed

5. 10 liters of black barley

6. 10 liters of green barley

7. 10 liters of … barley

8. 10 liters of cumin/barley of the thicket
Physical Description: 1 5/8" height x 1 5/8" width x 3/4" depth, square single column tablet with a deep circular impression on uninscribed reverse
Condition: Square tablet with a large, circular pit at the center of the uninscribed face. There are several incomplete cracks overall. There are minor surface losses and some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student text contains a list quantities of cereals. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 5

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52189a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 4 1/16" height x 3 1/8" width x 9/16" depth, rectangular tablet joined from fragments with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is a crevics between the two pieces along the entire break. This is due to losses along the break and possibly misalignment of the two pieces while being reattached. Adhesive is visible in portions of the break, and in one area is also on the surface near the break. There are losses to two corners as well as multiple losses to the surface of the tablet. It is difficult to tell whether or not the damage to the surface was done while the clay was still wet, or afterward because the patina is fairly consistent overall. There are some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This brief beginner's exercise only contains one line. Perhaps the student was interrupted before he could finish.
Box 5

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52191  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "ur" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5" height x 3 5/8" width x 1 3/8" depth, rectangular multi-column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with several losses. Two edges are jagged from uneven losses. Both of these edges have gouges made with modern tools, as well as deep crevices that have been covered with an adhesive. The other two edges also have some losses (not to the extent of the first two edges described) including some scratch marks along one of these edges. It is difficult to tell if these scratches were made while the clay was still wet or after the clay had dried. There are some patches on both faces where portions of cuneiform inscriptions are obscured. Possibly these are erasures that were made while the clay was wet (?) The tablet is a mottled brown and black color. There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "ur". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies.
Box 5

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 52194  School text, lexical exercise of wooden objects and grammatical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 2 3/4" height x 1 5/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet with severely effaced surfaces and transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: Rectangular tablet with some minor losses to the edges and three of the corners. There is one incomplete crack running from one edge to about 1 1/2" across one face. The surface of the tablet has several rough patches of varying tan and brown colors. It is unclear if this was part of the makeup of the tablet before it was dried, or if these are deposits or dirt. There are a few small white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student tablet contains a lexical exercise on the obverse and a grammatical exercise transposed on the reverse.
Box 6

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40721a-b  School text, administrative exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

1. 24,130 1/2 liters of semolina,

2. 13,411 liters of barley,

3. loaned grains;

4. 4,877 liters of barley,

5. 567 liters of emmer,

6. 85 liters of wheat,

7. grain credits in the carried over debits;

8. new loaned grains;

9. 39,407 1/2 liters of flour,

10. 42,475 1/3 liters of barley,

11. 580 liters of reaped barley,

12. 570 1/2 liters of wheat,

13. loaned grains in the center of the “entrusted house”;

14. 23,727 liters of barley,

15. 3,010 liters of emmer,

16. carried over debits of the account done;

17. n+1,170 1/2 liters of barley,

18. …

(The remaining lines are missing)

Column 2

1. 12,000+ liters of …

2. offerings …

3. 2,760+ liters of …

4. …

5. 5 fleece-less sheep,

6. 34 female kids,

7. 24 minas and 10 shekels of gold,

8. sealed by Lugal-nig-lagare,

9. son of 'servant of temple of Eridu';

10. 16,010 liters of flour,

11. 1,120 liters of barley,

12. new loaned grains;

13. 147 liters of flour,

14. 110,900 2/3 liters of barley,

15. 1,680 liters of flour,

16. carried over debits of the account done;

17. grains credited to the carried over debits;

18. its head …

19. barley …

(The remaining lines are missing)

Reverse

Column 1

(The first two lines are missing)

3'. The middle of the basket. The year the western wall was built;

4'. 8,950 liters of flour,

5'. 13, 140 liters of reaped barley,

6'. 6,720 liters of loaned grain,

7'. sealed by “He fills the palace”;

8'. 46,410 liters of flour,

9'. 6,018+ liters of barley,

10'. carried over debits of the account done …;

11'. 3,000+ liters of reaped barley,

12'. sealed by Gududu;

Column 2

1. The year Shu-Suen, king of Ur, built a grand stele for Enlil and Ninlil.

2. A copy sealed in the school by …
Physical Description: 4 7/8" height x 2 7/8" width x 13/16" depth, rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: One edge is quite jagged with some cracks, presumably where the fragment has broken from another piece. One corner has a large loss. On the face that is only partially inscribed, there is a deep gouge and loss at one edge. The "break" line is slightly different on each face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This practice administrative text contains quantities of cereals. This text is dated to king Shu-Suen's 5th and 6th regnal years (c. 2032-2033 BCE).
Box 6

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40726  School text, literary exercise from Lipit-Eshtar B Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 1/2" height x 5 3/8" width x 1 7/8" depth, square multi-column fragment
Condition: A fragment of a large tablet. One face has a hole "drilled" toward one edge. This may be the work of boring insects. Along the same edge are three scraped lines that were most likely caused by metal tools during excavation. This face also has some fine cracks. The other face is heavily inscribed and has a triangular gouged loss on one edge. This gouge appears to have some adhesive in it, though there is no break there. The multiple layers of clay can be seen on the broken edges. These also show the rather crude original shape of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is an example of an advanced student's training. The obverse contains Lipit- Eshtar's Praise in the Eduba. The reverse has a unidentified literary composition.
Box 6

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 40722a-f  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. …

5. The white mes tree

6. The black mes tree

7. The mes wood from Magan

8. The mes wood from the sea of Meluhha

9. A type of mes wood

10. A type of tree

11. A type of willow

12. A type of tree

13. …

14. A type of tree

15. An olive tree

16. An almond tree

17. A type of plant

18. A type of tree

19. A type of cedar

20. A sycamore

21. A type of sycamore

22. A type of tree

23. A Prunus Mahaleb tree

24. A reed object

25. …

26. A camel thorn plant

27. …

28. …

29. …

30. …

Column 2

(Approximately 6 lines missing)

7'. …

8'. …

9'. …

10'. …

11'. …

12'. …

13'. …

14'. …

15'. A type of wood or plant

16'. An offshoot

17'. …

18'. A forest

19'. A forest consumed by fire

20'. A forest eaten by insects

21'. A chaste tree

22'. A type of tree

23'. A type of tree

24'. A conifer tree

25'. A terebinth

26'. An almond tree

27'. …

28'. A plum tree

29'. A grapevine

30'. A mountain grapevine

31'. A fox grape

32'. A type of tree

33'. A mountain ildag tree

Column 3

1. An ildag sapling

2. An ildag tree of the water channel

3. A cedar tree

4. A type of cedar tree

5. A thorny tree

6. A thorny tree from Meluhha

7. A terebinth tree

8. A small terebinth tree

9. An oak tree

10. …

11. …

12. …

13. A type of plant

14. …

15. A goadstick

16. A goadstick

17. …

18. …

19. A type of tree

20. A pine tree

21. A pine cone

22. A pine tree seed

23. A crown of pine tree

24. A cut pine bough

25. An apple tree

26. A quince tree

27. An apricot tree

28. A pomegranate tree

29. A type of juniper

30. A juniper tree

31. …

32. A type of fruit tree

Column 4

1. A poplar tree

2. A mountain poplar tree

3. A poplar seed

4. …

5. A board

6. …

7. Upper foliage

8. A type of foliage

9. A date palm

10. A mountain date palm

11. A date palm offshoot

12. A split date palm

13. A pruned date palm

14. A date palm fiber

15. A harness for climbing date palms

16. The midrib of a date palm frond

17. A date palm offshoot

18. …

19. A young date palm frond

20. A cut date palm frond midrib with leaflets

21. A heart of palm

22. Hearts of palm

23. …

24. The broom of a date palm frond

25. The stump of a date palm frond

26. …

27. A date palm crossbar

28. A type of date palm stump

29. A date palm fiber

30. …

31. …

32. A date palm frond

33. A date palm frond

34. Date palm fronds

35. …

36. A date palm crown

37. …

Reverse

1. A cut off tree branch

2. A sign

3. A plow

4. A manual plow

5. A fully-equipped plow

6. A plow not fully-equipped

7. A breaking plow

8. A part of the plow attached to the side of the ox

9. The front of the plow

10. …

11. …

12. …

13. …

14. …

15. A plow's share

16. A part of the plow connecting the team to the yoke

17. The plow's arm

18. The sideboard of the plow

19. The board of the plow

20. The vessel of the plow

21. The earring of the plow

22. The yoke of the plow

23. The pole of the plow

24. …

25. The hoe of the plow

26. A hoe

27. A toothed hoe

28. A two-toothed hoe

29. A three-toothed hoe

30. A four-toothed hoe

31. A wooden vessel

32. Rotten wood

33. Rotten wood

34. Rotten wood

35. Ebony wood

36. A type of stick

37. A type of stick

38. A ball

39. A stick

40. A ball

41. A log

42. A type of mountain tree

43. Kindling wood

44. …

45. …

46. …

47. …

48. A … peg

49. A wagon

50. The pivot of a wagon

51. …

52. …

53. A handle

54. …

55. A towed boat

56. …

57. …

Column 2

1. The wheel of a wagon

2. The peg of the wheel of a wagon

3. …

4. A wagon hitch

5. A part of a wagon

6. The chair of a wagon

7. The sleeping place of a wagon

8. …

9. The handle of a wagon

10. A … vehicle

11. A … vehicle

12. A vehicle for the field

13. A harrow

14. A pivot of the harrow

15. A peg in the pivot of a harrow

16. …

17. A large-toothed harrow

18. A shovel

19. A winnowing shovel

20. A bread trowel

21. …

22. A kiln trowel

23. …

24. …

25. The wooden handle of a shovel

26. A measuring container of 60 liters

27. A measuring container

28. A measuring container of two liters

29. A measuring container of 10 liters

30. A measuring container of five liters

31. A measuring container of one liter

32. A measuring container of a half liter

33. A measuring container of one-third liter

34. A measuring container of ten shekels

35. A measuring container of five shekels

36. A measuring container of one shekel

37. A measuring container of one-half shekel

38. A measuring container of one-third shekel

39. …

40. …

41. An axe

42. A footstool

43. A copper footstool

44. A footstool decorated with ivory

45. A chair

46. …

47. …

48. A tall chair

49. A chair for travelling

50. …

51. …

52. …

53. …

54. A root

55. A root

Column 3

1. …

2. …

3. A sailor's chair

4. A copper chair

5. A woman's chair

6. A man's chair

7. A chair for the assembly

8. A chair built from palm fibers

9. A chair built from …

10. A chair with knobs inlaid with bronze

11. A chair with knobs inlaid with silver

12. A chair with knobs inlaid with gold

13. A chair of a king

14. The board of a chair

15. The front of a chair

16. The rung of a chair

17. A bed

18. A couch

19. A bed

20. …

21. A bed built from …

22. A bed with a carded wool mattress

23. A bed with a mattress of nanny hair

24. A bed with legs shaped like an ox's hoof

25. A bed with thin wheels

26. …

27. A bed board

28. The front of a bed

29. A bed rung

30. A type of loom

(Approximately 10 lines missing)

41. …

42. …

43. …

44. …

45. …

46. …

47. …

48’. …

49’. Two …

50’. …

51’. Sesame …

52’. …

53’. …

54’. …

55’. …

56’. Length

57’. A bed

58’. … needle

59’. … needle

60’. … needle

61’. … needle
Physical Description: 7 1/4"height x 6 1/2" width x 1 1/8" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: A large but broken tablet that has been reassembled from six fragments. The two larger broken and reattached corners have been adhered with multiple, unknown, adhesives, one of which has a greenish-gray hue. Another corner has been broken into multiple fragments, two of which have been readhered, along with an edge fragment. These three repairs were made with the greenish-gray adhesive and are poorly fit; there also appears to be some straw-like material set in the adhesive. There are vertical but incomplete cracks on one face. There is a surface loss to one of the larger, readhered corners.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects. When complete, this list would have a total of 380 entries.
Box 6

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 40723  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 13/16" height x 1 7/8" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. There is one small, incomplete crack on one side near one edge. There are a few small creases and shallow scratches in the clay, most likely made when the clay was wet. There are some small, white concretions overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects.
Box 6

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 40724a-b  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. A door of date palm midribs

2. …

3. …

4. …

5. A doorpole

6. A crescent-shaped object on a door

7. The door handle

8. The door pivot

Reverse

1. …

2. A bolt

3. …

4. A bolt

5. …

6. …

7. …
Physical Description: 2 7/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 13/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with adhesive. There is a jagged loss on the surface along the break line on one of the faces. On the other face, there is a gap where the two pieces have been reattached. This is possibly the result of the two pieces not being fit together properly when being reattached.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects.
Box 6

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 40728a-b  School text, mathematical exercise of reciprocals Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. 1

2. 1 ~ 1 | 4 ~ 40 | 6 ~ 40

3. 2 ~ 30 | 3 ~ 20 | 6 ~ 40 | 6 ~ 40

4. 3 ~ 20 | 2 n 3 ~ 20 | 6 ~ 40

5. 9 ~ 6 40

Reverse

1. 1

2. 1 ~ 1 | 6 ~ 40 | 6 ~ 40

3. 2 ~ 30 | 3 ~ 20 | 6 ~ 40

4. 3 ~ 20 | 2 ~ 13 | 3 ~ 20

5. 9 ~ 6 40
Physical Description: 3 3/8" height x 3 1/4" width x 1 1/6" depth, baked three-column square tablet joined from fragments with thumbnail marks throughout
Condition: Square tablet that has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with adhesive. There is a gap between the two pieces at the break, possibly from misalignment or losses (or both), especially on one face. A few spots of a black substance, possibly the adhesive, are visible along the break as well. There is a large encrustation of mineral deposits at one corner. There are a few other areas with deposits that are possibly also mineral build-up. On one face, there is a shallow dperession with groove marks, possibly an erasure made with an implement while the clay was still wet. Also visible on this face is a small area covered with a white substance. On the other side, there are a few small areas covered possibly with adhesive or coating. There are areas overall of blackened spots -- possibly from firing or from an adhesive.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a practice reciprocal table completed by a student.
Box 6

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 40725  School text, literary exercise from The Song of the Hoe Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 5/8" height x 2 1/4" width x 1" depth, baked red rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Square tablet fragment of red-brown clay. One of the edges has grooves that are possibly marks made by an implement used to break the fragment from another piece of tablet. There is a small loss on one corner and another loss on the surface of one edge, possibly from spalling. There is a white substance covering some areas of the surface throughout.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This popular literary piece was part of the Decad, a standard collection of literary works mastered by advanced scribes. This excerpt covers lines 27-43 of the 108 line song.
Box 6

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40727  School text, mathematical exercise Early Old Babylonian Period (c. 2000-1900 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 3 1/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 1 1/8" depth, rectangular tablet with the reverse uninscribed and both surfaces effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet with minor losses to two corners. There are a few minor losses on the surface overall including one loss along one edge. There is a small chunk where the clay is spalling and the chunk has not completely broken away yet.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This is a student exercise in mathematics.
Box 6

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 40729  School text, mathematical exercise of a multiplication table Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 1 3/4" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-brown clay. There are some losses on the surface of two of the corners and a small loss along one edge. There is adhesive on one of the corner losses. There is a cream-colored substance that has accumulated in many of the grooves of the cuneiform impressions.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a multiplication table based on 15 with Old Babylonian sexagesimal notation.
Box 7

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52192  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "a" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'The fate of which ones';

2. 'Sister';

3. 'Their sister';

4. 'My sister …';

5. 'My sister …';

6. 'My sister …';

7. 'My sister gave';

8. …;

9. 'The one above;

10. 'The ones above;

11. 'The one above is my brother'
Physical Description: 6" height x 3 1/2" width x 1 1/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet with an ink mark "BF 22 'A'"
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-tan clay. There are several losses on the surface. The convex face has a triangular loss near one edge and a linear loss stretching across the center of the face. There is also a sizeable gouge on one edge adjacent to this face that seems to have been made by an implement. It is unclear when this damage was caused. There are also two smaller gouge marks near one corner on this same face. On the same edge as the sizeable gouge, there are circular gouge marks at the center created by an implement. The patina of these is similar to that of the remainder of the tablet indicating these gouge marks are ancient. There are some white concretions visible overall, particularly on the convex face.
Language of Material: Akkadian or West Semitic

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "a". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies.
Box 7

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52193a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 1/4" height x 3 3/4" width x 1 1/16" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet with an adhesive label and ink mark"BF 22 'B'"
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with a clear adhesive. Dried adhesive is visible on the surface along the break. There are surface losses along the edges and three of the corners. There is some spalling in these areas. There are some areas of the surface that have a white sheen where it looks like discoloration of the clay has occurred but it is possible that some sort of coating has been applied or built up in these. There is a white label adhered to one edge inscribed with: C.

3. This label appears to be partially covering more script reading: 2'B'. This script is written directly on the surface of the tablet in black ink or paint. It is possible there is more of this script completely covered by the white label.
Language of Material: Sumerian, Akkadian and West Semitic

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names.
Box 7

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52195  School text, administrative exercise and mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 2 1/8" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet with transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a loss at one corner. There is adhesive covering a portion of this loss as well as some areas near the loss. There is an incomplete crack extending from this loss. There is a loss on one face with a patina similar to that of the rest of the face. It is possible this loss occurred while the clay was still wet. The other face has a small mound of clay at the center, surrounded by scrape marks. It seems that some of the scrape marks were made with an implement and others possibly were made by hand while the clay was still wet. There is an incomplete crack on this same face. There are some small scratches and wrinkles in the clay on the face -- some a result of scraping, also possibly made while the clay was wet. Notably, this face has a patina of a much darker brown-black. The other face is a medium brown color with patches of black and tan. There are other minor surface losses overall. There are some tan concretions visible overall, possibly this is dirt.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student tablet contains an administrative exercise for rations on the obverse and mathematic calculations transposed on the reverse
Box 7

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52196  School text, administrative exercise and mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3" height x 2 1/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet with transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a few incomplete cracks on one face and some minor spalling on the other face. There is minor damage at two of the corners. One face of the tablet has a dark brown patina with tan clay showing through. The other face is mottled tan, dark brown, and cream-colored. On edge is mostly cream-colored. there are some white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student tablet contains an administrative exercise for an account on the obverse and a mathematic problem transposed on the reverse
Box 7

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52202  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 1 7/8" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet that is slightly misshapen. One half end of the tablet is slightly wider than the other half. Two corners on the thinner half are bent upward slightly on the uninscribed face. Additionally, one half of the uninscribed face is thicker than the other half by about 1/8" - 1/4". There is a loss in one corner on this face that has left the surface uneven and jagged. There is also a groove mark across this face that looks to have been made with a modern tool. There is another gouge on one of the edges although it is difficult to tell when this was made because the patina is similar to that of the non- damaged portions of the tablet. There is a groove on an edge was still wet. The inscribed face looks worn. There is a loss at one corner and the surface at another corner may possibly have been scraped when the clay was still wet. There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects.
Box 7

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52197a-e  School text, lexical exercise from the Early Dynastic Word List C Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

1. advise

2. …

3. secret

4. purification priest

5. 5 units of salt

6. 5 units of a dairy product

7. 5 units of halub berries

8. 10 ducks

9. 10 male goats

10. 10 … sheep

11. 10 fat-tailed sheep

12. … suckling calves

13. …

14. …

(Remaining 4 lines missing)

Column 2

1. 4 metal daggers

2. 10 … animals

3. 10 units of milk

4. 1 unit of cream

5. 10 cows

6. 1 …

7. 10 ewes

8. 1 stud

9. 10 …

10. 1 male goat

11. … bird

12. 71

13. a high-ranking official

14. a singer

15. a barber

16. …

17. …

(Remaining 2 lines missing)

Column 3

1. 5 units of salt

2. 5 units of a dairy product

3. 5 units of halub berries

4. 10 ducks

5. 1 male goat

6. 1 TU sheep

7. …

8. cow …

9. calf …

10. 10 units of suhur flour

11. 3 units of flour

12. 3 units of …

13. 3 units of cereal

14. 4 metal daggers

15. … animals

16. 10 units of milk

17. 1 unit of cream

Reverse

Column 1

1. … cow

2. …

3. … ewe

4. 1 stud

5. …

6. … male goat

7. … bird

8. 71

9. a high ranking official

10. a singer

11. a barber

12. a kind of barber

13. …

14. …

15. …

16. acacia

17. cultivation

Column 2

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. …

5. a workshop

6. …

7. …

8. …

9. …

10. field work

11. field work

12. overflowing

13. a canal

14. …

15. its wood

16. plow of his workers

17. its reed

Column 3

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. its rushes

5. its rushes

6. …

7. …

8. universe

9. …

10. green lapis lazuli

11. thin

12. …

13. …

14. …

15. …
Physical Description: 6 3/16" height x 4 1/4" width x 1" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: A mostly complete tablet with an old, poorly-done fill at a corner on one face. One face has considerable cracking. The complete cracks have been filled with an unknown, clear adhesive to prevent the separation of fragments. Numerous cracks radiate out from larger breaks on one face. Many of these cracks are filled with a white accretion material, probably salts, that appear to be causing the cracking and some spalling. The mended breaks are poorly filled, and the fill is shrunken and detaching. In one area there are two small fragments of pinkish-red lint adhered to the surface.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is copied from the Early Dynastic Word List C, also known as the Tribute List. This lexical exercise originated around 3300 BCE, one of the oldest of its kind. The text is not fully understood.
Box 7

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52198a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'I am …'

2. 'I am the deity Ebgal'

3. 'I am the deity Marduk'

4. 'I am the deity Nanay'

5. 'Servant of …'

6. 'Servant of …'

7. 'My god is the light'

8. 'He is the light of my god'

9. 'He is the light of my house/dynasty'

10. 'He is the light of his brother'

11. 'He is the light of his land'
Physical Description: 4 15/16" height x 4 3/16" width x 13/16" depth, large rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Tablet is incomplete with a top corner broken and lost. The lower adjacent corner is broken and has been reattached with an unknown adhesive. There are unidentified fibers caught in the adhesive. Adhesive has been spilled on the edge adjacent to the repaired break and on one face of the tablet above the break. Adhesive has also been applied, apparently to stop surface spalling, near the lost corner. The storage box was relined after condition reporting.
Language of Material: West Semitic

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names.
Box 7

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52199  School text, erased exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 3 3/16" height x 2 1/2" width x 1" depth, rectangular tablet largely effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet with uninscribed face that has a very uneven surface. The inscribed face and edges of the tablet are uneven, but only slightly in comparison to the uninscribed face. There are three long scrapes across the uninscribed face that appear to have been made when the clay was still wet. There are folds and wrinkles in the clay that also appear to have been made when the clay was still wet. There are some other minor surface losses on this face as well as on the rest of the tablet. On the inscribed face, there are two incomplete cracks. There is one pit-like loss on this face, possibly made by an implement. There are also some minor losses to two of the corners.There are some white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise has been erased.
Box 7

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52200  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'Our brother';

2. …;

3. 'Of my father';

4. 'Large mouse';

5. 'Exuberant one';

6. 'Exuberant one';

7. 'He is firmly established';

8. 'Where did they cast it?'
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 1 11/16" width x 11/16" depth, baked and conserved red rectangular single column tablet with the reverse destroyed
Condition: Rectangular tablet of red-brown clay. There are some indentations and light scratch marks on the uninscribed face that were possibly made while the clay was still wet. There are very minor surface losses overall. The tablet has been coated and it seems like some of this coating has pooled and dried in some of the more deeply impressed portions of the cuneiform script.
Language of Material: Sumerian and West Semitic

Scope and Content Note

This bilingual student exercise lists various personal names in Sumerian and West Semtic.
Box 7

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 52204  School text, lexical exercise of types of boats Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. …

2. … boat

3. … boat

4. A raft

5. Ancestor-boat

6. A prow

7. Weapon boat

8. A boat with an awning

9. … boat

10. …

Reverse

1. … boat

2. A fisherman's boat

3. …
Physical Description: 2 13/16" height x 1 7/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectagular tablet with a number of complete and incomplete cracks. Many of these cracks, and the area around these cracks have been covered with an adhesive. There are losses along many of these cracks. There are losses at one corner and other minor surface losses. There are two rough gouges on one face --possibly these were made while the clay was still wet, based on the patina. One gouge runs across half of the face, the other gouge is at one edge. There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects. This list focuses on types of boats.
Box 7

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 52210  School text, literary exercise from Schooldays Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. 'Schoolboy, (where did you go?)'

2. 'I went to school.'

3. 'What did you do at school?'

4. 'I read my tablet.

5. I ate my lunch.

6. I made my tablet, wrote it and finished it.

7. My lines were prepared for me.

8. In the afternoon, my … were prepared for me.

9. When school ended,

10. I went home.

11. I entered the house.

12. My father was sitting there.

Reverse

1. My father …;

2. I read my tablet.

3. My father was happy.

4. I found favor with my father.

5. (I said) “I am thirsty, bring me drink.

6. I am hungry. Bring me food.

7. Wash my feet.

8. Set up the bed.

9. At dawn (I will awake).”'
Physical Description: 2 1/2" height x 2 1/8" width x 1 1/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Misshapen rectangular tablet that appears to have been pressed down on one edge. Possibly due to this pressing, this edge is diagonal and much wider than its opposing edge. The clay also bulges out on two faces near this edge, as well as on an adjacent edge. There is an incomplete crack on a bulge on one face. The surface of the pressed edge is slightly rough and there is some evidence of spalling. There is another corner that also appears to have been pressed down, but much less so than the other pressed edge. There is also a scrape mark near this corner on one of the faces. It is unclear if this mark was made while the clay was still wet or after the clay had dried. There are some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise belongs to a popular piece of literature about the life of a scribe. The story details the daily routine of an ancient Mesopotamian scribe. This tablet includes lines 1-16 of the full text.
Box 8

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40730  School text, mathematical exercise of a multiplication table Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 2" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a large loss in one corner and a smaller loss in another corner. There is some spalling in the corners with those losses. There are some incomplete cracks in the corner with the smaller loss. There are some white concretions visible mostly around the corner with the smaller loss.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is a multiplication table for 1/500.
Box 8

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40731a-c  School text, mathematical exercise of square roots Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 3/4" height x 1 3/4" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment that has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The break appears to be along a large portion of the surface (versus a clean break through the tablet) There is adhesive visible along the break on one of the faces. There is a small surface loss on this same face, just above the top of the break that has been reattached with adhesive. Along the edges with losses, it looks like there were two "layers" of clay used to form the tablet and that the "top" layer has been lost.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student's practice of a table of square roots.
Box 8

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 40732  School text, mathematical exercise of reciprocals Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 5/8" height x 1 11/16" width x 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment of grey-tan clay with losses at two edges and two corners. Approximately a quarter of the surface of one side is missing. There are some minor losses on the surface of the tablet overall. Some spalling is especially visible on the uninscribed face and there a few incomplete cracks on one edge.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's exercise in reciprocals.
Box 8

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 40739  School text, lexical exercise from ugu-mu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 7 1/2" height x 5 1/4" width x 1 1/2" depth, large baked rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: A fragment of a large tablet. The clay is poorly fired and fragile. One corner is broken and ready to detach (moves loosley). An adjacent corner has been reattached. One side of the tablet (of unknown size) is broken and lost. There are deep but incomplete cracks across one face. The opposite face has a few hairline cracks. Many tiny fragments have detached and are loose in the bottom of the poly bag.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is a student's vocabulary practice writing various body parts from the standard Old Babylonian list.
Box 8

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 40733  School text, mathematical exercise of reciprocals Early Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1800 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 3/4" height x 3" width x 13/16" depth, square tablet with the surfaces effaced
Condition: Square tablet with a crumbling and worn surface. Two edges and corners have losses. There seems to be some spalling in these areas. There are some grooves on the inscribed face that possibly were erasures made with an implement when the clay was still wet. There is a small chunk of an unknown black substance embedded in the body of the tablet near some of the losses -- possibly this was part of the makeup of the clay used for the tablet. There are some white concretions visible on parts of the surface. The clay is soft and actively crumbling.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This is a student's practice using reciprocals and factors.
Box 8

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 40734  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 1 5/8" height x 1 1/16" width x 5/8" depth, small rectangular tablet
Condition: Small rectangular tablet of grey-tan clay. There is a small loss on the surface of one face near a corner edge. On this same face, there are several cracks and wrinkles in the clay. There are some white concretions visible on the surface overall. There is a sheen to the raised portions of the surface, perhaps indicating that the tablet was coated (?)
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice writing large numbers.
Box 8

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 40736  School text, mathematical exercise for volume calculations Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 1/8" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a noticeably deep, incomplete crack running through the surface of one face. Some adhesive has been applied along some points of the crack as well as on the surface around these points. There are a few other incomplete cracks on the same face. There is one complete crack near one edge. On the other face, there are some losses to the surface in two of the corners and two of the edges. Adhesive has been applied to those areas with losses in the corners. There are a few incomplete cracks in one of the corners with losses. The central portion of each face has a dark black patina that has some sheen. This sheen could possibly be from wear or could be a coating.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

These are a student's word problems for calculating volumes of soil for canal digging. Canals had to be redug reguarly in ancient Mesopotamia, so these types of math problems were very useful for the scribe.
Box 8

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40737a-e  School text, sign exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/8" height x 1 5/8" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into five pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. Adhesive has been applied to some areas of the surface near the breaks. There are a number of losses along the breaks overall and on the surface near the breaks, particularly on one face. These losses have created gaps and crevices between the break points. Additionally, some of the broken pieces were not aligned to fit together properly when they were reattached. There are some small, white concretions visible on the surface overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
Box 8

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40735a-b  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 5/8" height x 3" width x 1 3/8" depth, rectangular tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are losses on one corner and on the edge near this corner. There is a complete crack running parallel to the break. There is another complete crack running over an edge that turns into an incomplete crack running across one face. On this same face, there is a small pit-like loss with a black substance partially filling it. There is also a surface loss near one corner edge. On the other face, there is a shallow, grooved ditch measuring about 1 1/2" long running through the center of the tablet that possibly was made when the clay was still wet. There are white concretions visible on the surface throughout.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is a word problem accompanied by diagrams of triangles to help solve the problem.
Box 8

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 40741a-c  School text, lexical exercise from ugu-mu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/16" height x 2 1/2" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments with worn surfaces
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment that has broken in three pieces. The pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are considerable losses along one edge of the tablet. as well as crevices due to losses at the breaks -- these crevices are particularly noticeable on the flat face. There is a slight gap at one of the breaks on the convex face, possibly indicating a misalignment when those pieces were reattached, or is the result of some losses from the break. There is a complete crack starting from the edge that runs about one inch diagonally cross the fragment. There is spalling on the surface of the losses. There is possibly some fill in this area too. There are minor losses to the surface of both faces. Small, white concretions are visible overall. The tablet is crumbling slightly.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is a student's vocabulary practice writing various body parts from the standard Old Babylonian list.
Box 8

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 40829a-b  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 2 7/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 5/8" depth, square tablet joined from fragments with the reverse surface worn
Condition: The tablet has broken approximately in half and much of one corner has been lost. The broken portion that was not lost has been reattached with clear adhesive. There is an area of spalling on one face along this break. On one short side, a short crack is visible; this may actually be a second reattached break. There is a small area of loss along this crack/break. One face of the tablet is a very dark brown color, while the other face is gray-tan.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound. Notice the tablet rotation is left-to-right, not the typical top-to-bottom.
Box 9

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40828a-b  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 4 3/4" height x 3 1/4" width x 1" depth, rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments with an ink mark "1"
Condition: Approximately 1/3 of the tablet has broken off and was reattached with clear adhesive; lumps of adhesive overfill some areas and are clearly visible on the surface of both faces. The edge of one face has a large gouge, apparently from a modern tool. This gouge continues onto part of the short side. The opposite face has a cluster of white spots near the repaired break. One edge near the corner has a small area of spalling. On the long side closest to the spalling there is a blue ink (?) mark "1 [inside a circle]". On one of the short sides opposite the gouge from the tool there is a white powdery spot.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
Box 9

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40830  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 5/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: One face of the tablet is relatively flat and rectangular, but the other face appears to have been smashed inward toward center while the clay was still wet. As a result, that face is compressed upward with a groove in the middle. (Viewed from the short end, the tablet looks almost triangular.) On one side of the compresed face there is a deep but incomplete crack at one side. Part of the face closest to the edge has spalled along the crack. On the flatter face there is an area of spalling near one edge. This is old damage, as the spalled area has the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is written to Nibu from Naram-….
Box 9

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 40831  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/8" height x 1 3/4" width x 9/16" depth, baked square single column tablet
Condition: The tablet has lost a small portion of one corner. The damage appears to be ancient, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drafting a letter using the appropriate format and techniques.
Box 9

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 40832a-b  School text, letter exercise for royal correspondence Ur III- Old Babylonian Period (c. 2100-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 2 1/4" width x 1 1/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: The tablet has broken along one long side, and two parts of the break at diagonally opposite corners have been lost. The broken portion that was not lost was reattached, but small areas of loss along the reattached break are visible on both faces. Some spalling has occurred at the corners near both lost corners.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

A practice letter from Aba-indasa to king Shulgi. Shulgi reigned from 2094-2047 BCE.
Box 9

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 40833.1  School text, lexical exercise from Lu A Uruk III (c. 3200-3000 BCE)

Translation: (First two columns missing)

Column 3

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. The chief …

5. The chief

6. …

7. …

Column 4

1. The chief secretary

2. The linen secretary

3. …

4. …

5. The chief courtyard attendant

6. …

7. …

Column 5

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. …

5. …

6. …

7. …

8. …
Physical Description: 3" height x 1 7/8" width x 5/8" depth, square multi-column fragment
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment inscribed on one face only. The fragment has a diagonal break across one side. In about the middle of this diagonal break there is a small gouged loss. At the edge of the tabelt along the break there is a small area of spalling. On the intact side of the tablet there is a chipped loss at one corner. On the uninscribed face, the loss at the corner is larger and includes an area of spalling. At the edge of the tablet diagonally opposite the broken corner there is a smooth, slanted gouge/loss, possibly the result of a modern tool strike. About a half inch above this loss there is a small hole in the fragment.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This archaic practice vocabulary is an example of the earliest phase of writing. This list records types of professions.
Box 9

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 40833.2  School text, lexical exercise from Lu A Uruk III (c. 3200-3000 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

1. The yoke …

2. The travel official

3. …

4. …

Column 2

1. …

2. The chief priest

3. The cattle pen attendant

4. …

5. The policeman

Column 3

1. …

2. The chief

3. The chief …

4. The plowman

5. The chief

Column 4

1. The chief …

2. …

3. The chief …

4. …

5. …

Column 5

1. The chief …

2. …

3. The chief …

4. …

5. …
Physical Description: 3" height x 1 5/8" width x 1/2" depth, square multi-column fragment
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment inscribed on one face only. On the inscribed face, one corner is damaged either by spalling or possibly a strike from a modern tool; this damage is a smooth, slanted loss. On the uninscribed face, one corner has a gouged loss that has removed part of the face without breaking off the whole depth of the corner.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This archaic practice vocabulary is an example of the earliest phase of writing. This list records types of professions.
Box 9

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 40834.1a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "ur" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 1/4" height x 4 1/4" width x 1 1/4" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: A flat, rectangular tablet with inscriptions on both faces. One face is actively crumbling and spalling. Small white concretions on this face may be salts and if so, this may be the cause of the spalling. The tablet is cracked into 2 pieces and repaired with an unknown, clear adhesive. Other deep, but incomplete cracks have also been filled with adhesive. There is a rounded, pitted loss on the more stable face. A small beetle that resembles a powderpost beetle or other wood boring beetle was found in the bag with the tablet and has been bagged seperately.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "ur". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies. This tablet is dated to Rim-Suen, year 33 (c. 1789) and signed by its scribe Nabi-ilishu.
Box 9

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 40835a-b  School text, mathematical exercise of length conversions Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4" height x 2" width x 7/8" depth, baked rectangular tablet
Condition: The tablet has broken in half and been reattached with a milky-white adhesive. One face of the tablet has mostly discolored to yellow-white, with some of the original orange color still visible. The other face remains mostly orange, with yellow-white areas along the edges. The yellow-white face has a small area of loss on one edge of the repaired break. A lump of white adhesive is visible inside the loss, and more is visible along the break. An area near one corner has spalled; that same corner has a small loss. The lost corner is less visible on the orange face.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student math exercise was practice converting and calculating various length units.
Box 9

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 40834.2a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "ur" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'Servant of new year'

2. 'Servant of the side'

3. 'Servant of the deity Damu'
Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 1" depth, baked lentil joined from fragments with lines inscribed on reverse, but no writing
Condition: Lenticular tablet that split approximately in half but was reattached with opaque-white adhesive. One face has a deep incomplete crack running from the break at center out to the edge. There is an area of spalling at the edge where the second crack terminates. There is a small gouged loss at the edge of the tablet diagonally across from the spalling. The opposite face has a large gouged loss running next to the central reattached break. This loss is relatively recent, as it does not have the same patina as the rest of the tablet. Opaque-white adhesive is visible in the break. One edge of the tablet has a chipped loss; this loss has the same patina as the rest of the tablet. There is a small chipped loss at the edge of the tablet where the two broken pieces were reattached.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "ur". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies.
Box 9

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 40836  School text, mathematical exercise of large numbers Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 1 11/16" height x 2 11/16"width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: The tablet has a small loss along the edge of one face, continuing onto a short end. A short, incomplete crack is in the corner nearest that loss. A second corner on that face has an area of spalling. Just above the spalling is a small loss that continues onto a long side. The opposite face has a loss in one corner and a second, larger loss just above the diagonnally opposite corner. A third corner has an area of spalling. This spalling reveals clay that is a lighter brown color than the rest of the tablet, indicating that it is relatively recent damage. There are a few white spots scattered on both faces and on the long sides.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is a series of large numbers with no detectable relation to each other.
Box 9

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 40837  School text, legal exercise of a contract for the sale of an orchard Old Akkadian Period (c. 2340-2200)

Translation:

Obverse

1. 1 garden,

2. being of the house of Adumu,

3. for 5 shekels of silver,

4. he exchanged metal.

5. 'Servant of the house of the spouse'

6. '… of the storm deity'

7. 'Servant of the deity Shulpa'e'

8. …

9. …

(The remaining lines are missing)

Reverse

(First two lines missing)

3'. …

4'. …

5'. 'The foreigner', the scribe

6'. 'Servant of the deity Haya', the scribe

7'. Namhani, the expert;

8'. Being the witnesses,

9'. Under their witness the house was given;

10'. Its statement is complete;

11'. Its claim is abandoned;

12. Sworn by the life of the king;

13'. 'King of the cut precious stone', the governor of Adab.
Physical Description: 2 1/4" height x 1 3/4" width x 7/8" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: This fragment is a portion of a rectangular tablet that broke diagonally. As a result, the broken edge has a jagged point on one side. Several internal cracks are visible on the broken end of the fragment. These cracks could lead to spalling. A gouge from a modern (?) tool is visible about midway along the break on one face. On one edge above the break, there is a small purple-black spot. On the opposite face, a small spot of spalling is visible at the pointed end of the break.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student tablet is a contract for the sale of an orchard.
Box 9

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 40838  School text Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too damaged to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 3 9/16" height x 2 3/4" width x 1" depth, irregular shape tablet with severely effaced surfaces
Condition: This tablet fragment is a portion of a rectangular tablet. One end has broken off unevenly. On the inscribed face, both corners opposite the broken end have small losses. The uninscribed face has a shallow pit and several hairline cracks; several of these areas have a white substance in them. Under magnification at least some of this white material is crystalline and appears to be salt. Additional spots of white crystalline material are scattered on the broken short end.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

The contents of this student exercise are unclear.
Box 10

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52201a-c  School text, mathematical exercise with geometry Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 1/2" height x 3 1/8" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into three pieces. Several portions of the breaks and areas surrounding the breaks have been covered with adhesive. There are some white fibers stuck in the adhesive on the break near the edge. There is a dried ball of adhesive visible along the central break, as well as a small patch of what seems to be some printed material (possibly paper based) adhered to some of the adhesive. The three pieces consist of essentially two halves (this break runs across the center of the tablet) and a portion of one of the edges. There are considerable losses near the break at the edge, as well as some losses along the other break. There is a deep gouge next to the more central break. This possibly was created by an implement, alhough it is unclear if it was created while the clay was still wet. There are several incomplete cracks overall, mostly visible by the break at the edge. There seems to be some smaller losses that have been reattached along the breaks. There are some white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This school exercise contains two diagrams for solving geometric problems involving Pythagoras' Theorem and the value of Pi.
Box 10

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52203  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

(All but last line effaced)

13. Equid's nose rope

Reverse

1. Throne

2. …

3. …

4. Raft

5. …

6. Nails

7. A type of plow

8.

9. …

10. … chariot

11. Poplar …

12. Popular …

13. Poplar seed
Physical Description: 2 3/4" height x 1 15/16" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with losses at two corners. There is one small chip that may possibly have been reattached with an adhesive (?). There is an area on one face that has been scraped with a modern tool. There are incomplete cracks overall, particularly around the losses. There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects.
Box 10

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52205  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 3/8" height x 1 11/16" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet with transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: Rectangular tablet with some indentations that appear to have happened while the clay was still wet. This has partially obscured the inscription on both faces. On one face there is a small, pitted loss at one corner. On the opposite face there is a larger gouged loss at one corner- this gouge is old, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drafting a letter using the appropriate format and techniques.
Box 10

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52206  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too broken to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 3 1/8" height x 1 3/4" width x 1 1/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. These two pieces have been reattached with a white opaque adhesive as well as a clear adheseive, both of which are visible along the break line. The tablet is misshapen and twisted- as if it was pressed diagonally down the center. These are losses along the break as well as surface losses that look modern. A portion of the cuneiform script on one face has been erased, possibly from the pressing. There are a few incomplete cracks. There are some white concretions visible on one of the faces.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names. The substantial surface damage prevents an adequate reconstruction of the text.
Box 10

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52208a-f  School text, administrative exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 2" width x 13/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into six pieces. these six pieces consist of two main pieces and four other chips from the surface. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The four chips have some jagged edges that extend slightly above the rest of the face, possibly from misalignment while being reattched. Additionally, there are three minor losses: the first is located at one corner, another is near one edge, and the third is near the center on one face. There is a rough patch of a substance, possibly clay (?), along a portion of the break on one face.There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise involves female weavers.
Box 10

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52212  School text, envelope fragment with sealing Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

Reverse

1. Month: 'Seed'

2. Year: 'Simurrum and Lullubum were damaged for the 9th time.'

Seal

1. 'His father',

2. A scribe

3. Son of …
Physical Description: 1 15/16" height x 1 11/16" width x 15/16" depth, baked square envelope
Condition: Rectangular cuneiform tablet envelope fragment. A large portion of the envelope is lost. Additionally, there are some surface losses. The edges and surface are jagged where there are losses. There are some incomplete cracks and folds in the clay visible on the interior of the envelope. There are incomplete cracks visible at a corner edge. There are some gouge marks on two of the edges that were most likely made with a modern tool.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This administrative document was written by Abu-shuni in the ancient city of Umma and dates to Shulgi 44 (c. 2099 BCE), month

6. There is no writing preserved inside envelope.
Box 10

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52209  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. …;

2. …;

3. 'Servant of the sun god';

4. 'His servant';

5. …;

6. 'Servant of Lamma';

7. 'Servant of Kalkal';

8. 'Servant of Kala';

9. 'Servant of the moon god';

10. 'Servant of Ishtaran';

11. 'Hero';

12. 'Servant of Sagku';

13. …;

14. …;

15. …;

16. …;

17. …;

18. 'Servant of the big brother';

Reverse

1. 'Servant of the brother of An';

2. …;

3. 'Servant of his brother';

4. …;

5. …;

6. …;

7. 'Sweet servant of the prince';

8. …;

9. …;

10. 'His servant';

11. …;

12. 'Little servant';

13. 'The littlest servant';

14. 'Servant of the scepter';

15. …;

16. 'Servant of the man';

17. …;

18. …
Physical Description: 4 1/8" height x 2 1/2" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular double column tablet with one column shaved down
Condition: Rectangular tablet with losses at two corners. The surface at these losses is jagged and uneven. There are a number of incomplete cracks, particularly along two of the edges. Some of these cracks are covered with a clear adhesive. Half of the tablet is about 1/8" thinner than the other half. This appears to have been done when the clay was still wet because there is cuneiform script on this thinner portion overall. There are several white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

Note the difference in depth of the two columns--this is due to repeated erasing and re-writing in the student's copy of the teacher's text.
Box 10

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52213  School text, mathematical exercise for profit calculation Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/2" height x 2 5/16" width x 3/4" depth, square single column tablet with an adhesive label
Condition: Square tablet that has a deep, complete crack running across the tablet. Much of this crack has been covered and filled with an adhesive. There are a few incomplete cracks that extend from the complete crack. There are a few other minor losses overall. There is a circular white label adhered to one edge inscribed with "1.".
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise contains mathematical calculations for ascertaining profit.
Box 10

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 62567  School text, stylus exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

1. One
Physical Description: 1 7/8" height x 1 7/8" width x 3/4" depth, square fragment with worn surfaces
Condition: Small, approximately-square tablet made of light brown clay. One corner of the tablet is broken and lost; this damage is more prominent on one face than on the other. On the face where the loss is more prominent, there is a crack on the side of the tablet at one corner; this crack is not visible from the other face. There is a crack at a third corner that is deep enough to be visible on both faces. On the opposite face, there is a small, short crack running from the broken corner toward center.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This elementary exercise allowed a new student to practice forming signs and wedges with the stylus. This is the first step in the scribal education.
Box 10

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96212  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 1" depth, baked red rectangular single column tablet
Condition: The tablet is mostly complete with only small losses to two corners. No adhesive appears to have been applied, but the surface may be coated with something. The tablet has multiple cracks, the most serious of which runs horizontally but is not broken across the entire tablet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drafting a letter using the appropriate format and techniques. The text is dated, "11th day of the month Nenegar in the year Ami-ditana become king" (c. 1684). The letter was signed by scribes.
Box 10

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 52211  School text, sign exercise from unknown Syllabary Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 2 7/8" height x 1 9/16" width x 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with losses at one edge. This edge is jagged due to these losses. There is a gouge mark on one face that appears to have been made with a modern tool. There is an incomplete crack at one corner. There are some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing simple signs.
Box 10

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 96213a-b  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 2 3/8" width x 1" depth, baked red rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into at least two pieces and been reattached with adhesive. Two corners are broken and lost. One face has a large black spot adjacent to one broken corner. The corner diagonally across is also broken, with a large gouge missing from the face. A deep crack runs straight from one edge of the face to the other, and there is a gouge missing from the middle of the crack. A second crack runs diagonally and joins the first. This diagonal crack is complete. Some clear adhesive is visible in both cracks. One the opposite face, the complete crack is a wavy line. There is a shallow gouge in the middle of the crack with adhesive visible inside. A deep, complete crack runs from one edge for about one inch toward center. The entire tablet is orange in color and is coated with a shiny material. One short side of the tablet is slanted and appears to have been compressed while the clay was still wet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drafting a letter using the appropriate format and techniques. The text is dated, "11th day of the month Nenegar in the year Ami-ditana become king" (c. 1684).
Box 10

Item: 12 Cotsen ID: 96219a-c  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "en" Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'The lord pouring forth luxuriance';

2. 'The destructive lord of Inanna';

3. 'The lord of the shrine';

4. 'The lord of the beloved ritual cleansing';

5. From the outside to the inside.
Physical Description: 3 3/4" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil joined from fragments with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet fragment reconstructed from at least three (but possibly much more than three) smaller fragments that were reattached. Approximately 1/4 of the tablet is lost. All the remaining fragments are held together with clear adhesive; there are still wide complete cracks, and adhesive is visible within several of them. One face has a large gouge toward center; this gouge borders the crack created by one of the reattached breaks. That crack runs to the edge of the tablet. Just above the crack at this edge there is a large, wedge-shaped loss. Part of the tablet adjacent to that loss has spalled. About one inch over from the wedge-shaped loss is a second loss; this one is at the edge of another reattached break. Near the edge furthest from the large missing portion of the tablet, there are three shallow gouges, a notched loss, and a deep gouge. Several cracks of varying depths are all over this face. The opposite face shows less damage. There is a deep gouge at one edge- to one side of that is a wedge- shaped loss. Closer toward center of the tablet are two shallower gouges. Deep cracks are visible on this face, but not as many as are visible on the other face. Some spots of adhesive are visible on the surface. The tablet may be lightly coated with an unknown substance.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "en" (lord). There is a note from the teacher, "Turn top to bottom", instructing the student which way to rotate the tablet to write on the reverse face.
Box 10

Item: 13 Cotsen ID: 96217  School text, lexical exercise from Proto-Lu Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Man

2. King

3. Son of the king

4. (Written by) 'Servant of the wild cow goddess'
Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 1" depth, red lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet of orange-colored clay. One face has a gouge close to one edge with an area of shallow spalling adjoining it. Diagonally across the face there is a small, round gouge. The opposite face has an irregular, shallow crack near one edge. The tablet is coated with a shiny substance.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of professions. The text was signed by its scribe, Ur-Ninsun.
Box 11

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40839  School text Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 3/8" height x 2 7/8" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular tablet
Condition: Ovoid tablet partially inscribed on one face. The partially inscribed face has two areas of spalling diagonally across from each other, revealing lighter colored clay than the rest of the tablet. One of these areas has a white crystalline spot on it that may be salt. At one edge there is a gouge, but this damage is old, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet. The uninscribed face has a large gouge or area of spalling on one edge. Another edge has an uneven loss. White crystalline spots are scattered on this face, mostly within damaged areas.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice was made from a recycled lexical list of personal names.
Box 11

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40840  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "lu2" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 5/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 5/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Both faces of the tablet were partially wiped smooth while the clay was wet; one face only has inscription in one corner. The face with more writing has lost a small chip in one corner. This face is a lighter color than the opposite face, which is almost black over much of its surface. The face with little writing has a small piece of white fiberous material attached in one corner. This face also has some white powdery material at the opposite end from the fiberous material. The white material is shiny like salt, but it does not appear crystalline in structure.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "lu2". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies.
Box 11

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 40841  School text, lexical exercise fom Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. An apple tree;

2. A quince tree;

3. An arwanum apple tree;

4. A spring(?) apple tree;

5. An … apple tree;

6. An … apple tree;

7. A damshilum apple tree;

Reverse

1. A biza apple tree;

2. An …;

3. A fig tree
Physical Description: 1 1/2" height x 2" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: The tablet is mostly intact except for one corner that is broken off and lost. Once face has several deposits of a pale white substance- these deposits may be salt crystals. The deposits vary in size from small to about 1/4-inch across. The opposite face was wiped down on one half; that wiped half has a large deposit at one edge. Both short sides of the tablet also have deposits.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects.
Box 11

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 44554  School text, literary exercise from The Goose and the Raven Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 2 1/4" width x 1 1/16" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Both faces of the tablet have several areas of loss that are filled with a substance colored white; this color distinguishes the fills from the original clay. One face has an incomplete crack running from a corner fill diagonally across to a second fill. That same face has another incomplete crack running most of the length of one edge. The opposite face has a few small, incomplete cracks, but this face has larger areas of fill. The color of the clay on the tablet varies greatly, from a deep orange-red to a light tan.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise contains part of a Sumerian fable.
Box 11

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 44746  School text, mathematical exercise of a multiplication table Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 2" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet made of light tan-colored clay. One face has losses at two corners on the same side. On the edge opposite the two broken corners there is a gouge from a modern (?) tool. There is a small chipped loss and a short crack in the middle of this face. The two broken corners are also visible on the opposite face. A third corner has a very small loss. One of the long sides has a deep hole or gouge near one of the intact corners. The interior of the hole is very uneven and does not appear to be made by an implement.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is a multiplication table based on 18.
Box 11

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52142  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4" height x 2" width x 1 1/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: The tablet has a small break and loss at one corner; the entire corner is not lost, as the loss is only visible on one face. Just below where the loss is visible, the face has a small spot with a dark black substance in it that may be fill. Further down, almost in the opposite corner, there is a round, pitted spot. The opposite face also has a round pitted spot that is close to one corner. The sides of the pitted spot are smooth enough that it may have been gouged out with an implenent of some sort. The color of the tablet is dark gray, except along one short end and one long side; those areas are pale tan.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Iddin-Ninshubur to Suen-abi, and concerns a delivery of sesame and an ox to be handed over to third individual.
Box 11

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52143  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 1/16" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Tablet with one corner broken off and partially lost. The portion of the corner that was not lost has been reattached with clear adhesive. The adhesive is partially visible on one face. The opposite face has a gouge at one side. This same face has dark black discoloration, possibly charring.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Shamash-bel-... to Inashdu, concerning a field.
Box 11

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52144  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2" width x 1 3/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Tablet with a gouged loss, apparently from a modern (?) tool strike, near the corner of one face. Just below the gouge is an aread of partial loss, where part of the face has spalled. This damage is not visible on the opposite face.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Sin-apulanni to Shamash-sharrashu, and refers to a previous letter.
Box 11

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 52145  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 1 7/8" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: One face of the tablet has an old break and loss in two corners. Each of these small losses has the same patina as the rest of the tablet, indicating that the losses are ancient. The opposite face has a break and loss in one corner and an oval-shaped gouge close ot the middle. Tiny white particles scattered across both faces do not appear to be salt crystals.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is to Ibni-Ea from Tashin, ordering him to send various commodities.
Box 11

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 52146  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/16" height x 2" width x 1 1/4", rectangular single column tablet with worn surfaces
Condition: Tablet with one corner broken and lost. There is clear adhesive visible within the break. One face has a deep but incomplete crack in the corner opposite the broken corner. A second crack (less deep) comes from the side and intersects the first crack. Spots of clear adhesive are on the surface covering portions of both cracks. One triangular-shaped piece has been lost along the deep crack. The opposite face has a gouge near one corner. The large corner break/loss described above is visible but less severe on this face. Another corner has spalling, but the damage appears old, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet. There are scattered white particles on both faces.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Ku-Nanna to Suen-bel-apli.
Box 11

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 52147  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/8" height x 2" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: This tablet is actively crumbling when handled; it is more fragile than it appears. One face has a crack that runs the length of one short side. At the opposite end of that face a small portion of the corner is broken and lost. The opposite face has some narrow but long cracks. One of these cracks continues through to the other face. Another crack continues onto one of the short sides. There is an area of spalling on one edge of this face; one of the longest cracks runs through the spalling.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Imgurrum to Ili-ilabi stating he has dispatched three individuals, and demands action the minute the recipient sees them.
Box 11

Item: 12 Cotsen ID: 52148  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 2 1/16" width x 1" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: This rectangular tablet has spalling on the corner of one long side; this area is covered with clear adhesive. At the opposite end of the tablet, the edge of one face and a portion of one short side is lost to spalling. The opposite face has three spots of spalling aong one long edge, and a fourth spot at the edge along one short side.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Ur-Lisi to Ur-Kabta concerning agricultural matters.
Box 11

Item: 13 Cotsen ID: 52149  Letter with envelope from king Rim-Suen of Larsa Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5" height x 2 1/4" width x 1 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed and an envelope partially preserved on the reverse
Condition: This rectangular tablet has a large fragment of envelop attached to one face; the clay of the envelop appears to have dried onto the tabet rather than being glued to it. About 1/3 of the face without the envelop fragment is lost to spalling. The area runs diagonally across the face. Cracks at either end of this part of the face are covered with clear adhesive. A crack in one corner away from the spalling is also covered with adhesive. Three of four corners have losses. The face with the envelop fragment has three large areas of adhesive. Two of these areas follow part of the outline of the envelop and continue onto one long side of the fragment. The third area covers a crack near the corner which continues onto the long side of the tablet. (This crack may actually be a break that was reattached.) A fourth, smaller, area of adhesive is on the other side of the face, continuing onto the long side of the tablet. All four corners have small losses.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This royal letter is from king Rim-Suen to Suen-imguranni. Rim-Suen reigned from 1822- 1763 BCE.
Box 11

Item: 14 Cotsen ID: 52150  School text, letter exercise with envelope fragment Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 1 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: This rectangular tablet has a fragment of envelop that has dried to one face. The opposite face appears to have been smashed/compressed toward center while the clay was still wet. About half of the surface of the envelop fragment has spalled. There ar a few scattered white spots near the edge on this face. The opposite face is misshapen from being compressed while the clay was wet. One portion of this compressed area has a scrape or gouge, possibly from a modern tool. At one edge of this face there are two areas of spalling that continue onto the short side. Both faces have blackened areas much darker than the rest of the clay. These may be scorch marks.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from Ur-Zababa, who writes to Silli-Shamash about barley rations.
Box 12

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52151  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 3/16" height x 2 5/16" width x 1 3/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a large break and loss; this loss is more prominent on one face than the other. On the face where the loss is less prominent, an adhesive-filled crack follows the contours of the loss. Two other corners on that face have minor losses. On the opposite face, the damage from the break and loss is larger and the area is covered with clear adhesive, making it appear dark brown. There is a small area of spalling immediately adjacent to the adhesive. On the edge across from the adhesive there is a small gouge, or possibly spalling; the damage is old, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet. There are two spots of spalling toward the opposite end of the face, closest to two corners that each have a small loss.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from from Gula-mansum to Ibbi-Ashdu, referring to a field. This text is part of a group of three duplicate letters (52151-52153).
Box 12

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52152a-c  School text, letter exercise with envelope Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 1/8" width x 1 1/2" depth, rectangular single column tablet with two detached envelope fragments
Condition: A small rectangular tablet with two associated but detached envelop fragments. The tablet is relatively complete with only one small loss toward the edge of one face. The same face is blackened, possibly from burning. "b" is the larger envelop fragment, which has a negative impression of cuneiform symbols on its concave (interior) face. "c" is the smaller envelop fragment, which also has a negative impression on its interior. This fragment also has an incomplete crack. Both envelop fragments are quite fragile.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from from Gula-mansum to Ibbi-Ashdu, referring to a field. This text is part of a group of three duplicate letters (52151-52153).
Box 12

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52161a-e  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 3 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 8 3/8" height x 5 7/8" width x 7/8" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments with the obverse destroyed
Condition: Rectangular tablet with an entire face that is uneven and rough from crater-like losses. The tablet has also broken into five pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is a sizeable loss at one corner as well as a deep loss where most of the breaks converge. There are several incomplete cracks overall. There is one deep, incomplete crack along one edge. The breaks, cracks, and losses are covered with adhesive. The deep loss where the breaks converge is covered with a white adhesive. There are some white fibers adhered to the surface next to this loss. There are some additional spots of adhesive on one face. There are white concretions visible on the uninscribed face with losses, possibly these are soluble salts. There is a shallow gouge on the surface of the inscirbed face that was made with a modern tool. The tablet is actively crumbling.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 3 list of animals. This tablet contains a colophon.
Box 12

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52153  School text, letter exercise with envelope Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/8" height x 2" width x 1 3/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet with an envelope attached
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with one face almost completely covered by an envelop that has dried together with it. One large corner of both tablet and envelop is broken and lost. At one edge of this loss, a small fragment of envelop has a complete crack and is in danger of spalling. There are white deposits (salt?) along this crack that may be contributing to the danger. At one corner of the face without the envelop there is a gouge that continues onto the long side. A small piece of the side just below the gouge is cracked; this may actually be a reattached break. Near the corner diagonally opposite from the large loss is another gouge. On the enveloped face there is spalling (of face and envelop) connected to the large break. There is a large spot of a white deposit adjacent to the spalling. One edge of the envelop on a short side has a crack that runs the full length.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from from Gula-mansum to Ibbi-Ashdu, referring to a field. This text is part of a group of three duplicate letters (52151-52153).
Box 12

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52154  Letter from king Rim-Suen of Larsa Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 7/8" depth, baked rectangular tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet with one partially-inscribed face and one uninscribed face. The partially-inscribed face has spalling at the uninscribed edge. Several deep cracks run through the uninscribed portion, continuing onto the inscribed portion or onto the side. One corner of the inscribed portion has a small gouged loss. The uninscribed face has a gouge near one corner that extends onto the short side. A deep, complete crack runs down the face, across the gouge, and over onto the other face. The corner closest to that damaged corner has a large area of spalling. There are several cracks on the short side affected by the gouge/crack. The clay of this tablet is milky light tan in color.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This royal letter is from king Rim-Suen concerning agricultural and irrigation matters. Rim-Suen reigned from 1822-1763 BCE.
Box 12

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52155  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 3/4" height x 1 15/16" width x 1 1/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of medium-brown colored clay. One face has a scraped area near one corner that appears to be caused by a modern tool. The clay of this scrape is lighter than the rest of the tablet, indicating more recent damage. At the opposite end of the face there is a thin, diagonal gouge. This damage looks older, as it has the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is to Ilu-mansum.
Box 12

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52157  School text, letter exercise for royal correspondence Ur III- Old Babylonian Period (c. 2100-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 1 1/8" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet with an ink mark "BF 8"
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with a loss all the way across one short side, and one lost corner. The remaining corner has a small gouge and loss on one face. That same face has a small spot of spalling near center. There are two small holes- each about the diameter of the head of a pin- toward one edge. The opposite face has several scattered deep cracks criss-crossing the surface. Many of these cracks continue onto one of the long sides of the tablet. One deep crack runs down the long side and through the center of the tablet to the other long side.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice letter is from from king Shulgi to Arad-mu. This exercise is signed by its scribe Sin-ishme'anni, dated on the 6th day.
Box 12

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52158  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too damaged to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 2 15/16" height x 2 3/4" width x 13/16" depth, square tablet with the surfaces effaced
Condition: A flat-faced, square tablet. The surface has considerable wear which obscures the rather large cuneiform symbols. There appear to be post-depositional layers of clay or soil on one face that have been partially scraped away. The tablet is actively crumbling and there are small detached fragments in its poly bag.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student practice is well-used and erased. It was likely used a "scrap paper" by students.
Box 12

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 52159  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3" height x 2 1/2" width x 1" depth, rectangular tablet with the reverse effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet with several losses on one face. The surface of the uninscribed face is uneven and rough from losses. There are several groove marks of varying lengths, most likely made with a modern tool across one half of this face. There are two groove marks that are shorter and deeper, located at the side of this groove-marked area. This area is about 1/8" to 1/4" thinner than the rest of the tablet, presumably from the amount of losses sustained. The other half of this face also has a number of surface losses. The inscribed face has some losses as well. One of these losses may possibly be obscuring some of the cuneiform inscriptions. There is an incomplete crack near one corner. There are flakes of mineral deposits visible on the uninscribed face. There are also some white concretions visible on this face. The tablet seems to be actively crumbling, however, it is possible that only dirt is crumbling off.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student practice is an unidentified mathematical operation.
Box 12

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 52160  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/4" height x 3 1/2" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet that is mostly intact, with some losses at two of the corners. There is a small tab of clay that juts out on one face near an edge. Anotherr small piece of clay has flaked up, but is still attached to the tablet on one side. Underneath this flake is a spot of a black substance. There are some other losses to the surface of the tablet. White concretions are visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is a problem of coefficients used in calculating the volume of a solid.
Box 12

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 52167  School text, grammatical exercise with the verb "to give" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. He gave it to him.

2. They gave it to him.

3. He distributed it to him.
Physical Description: 3 3/8" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil with the reverse effaced
Condition: Lenticular tablet with the inscription on one face intact, but with the surface of the opposite face entirely spalled. This tablet has two large losses at the edge, visible on both faces. The spalled face has a narrow crevace toward the center, about half an inch long. The surface of this face is rough and uneven.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

Grammar lesson inflecting "to give". These expressions are common in business matters, an area every scribe needed to be proficient in.
Box 13

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 96214a-?  School text, letter exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 7/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 7/8" depth, red rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: The tablet has been broken into multiple pieces and reassembled using an unidentified, clear adhesive. Numerous fragments ranging in size from 2.75 cm to powder are present in the poly bag. These appear to be recent damage (occured after the repairs done with the clear adhesive). The tablet also has three conically-shaped surface losses on one face. The tablet is actively crumbling.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice in drafting a letter using the appropriate format and techniques. The text is dated, "The year after Ami-ditana became king" (c. 1683).
Box 13

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 96215a-b  School text, lexical exercise from Proto-Lu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 7/8" height x 3 5/8" width x 1" depth, square prism fragment joined from fragments with the reverse effaced
Condition: Tablet fragment that was possibly rectangular or square-shaped. The fragment has broken into two pieces. The two pieces have been reattached with an edhesive. The adhesive is visible along the break line and on surface around the break line. The entire surface of one face is gone; the clay remaining is quite jagged and spalling. The surface of most of the edges have also suffered losses and are also jagged and uneven. There is a complete crack and several incomplete cracks on the face with losses. There are a few small mineral deposits as well as white concretions overall. The fragment is actively crumbling.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of professions.
Box 13

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96216  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 5 1/2" height x 3" width x 1 5/8" depth, red hexagonal prism fragment joined from fragments
Condition: The fragment is half of a hexagonal-shaped tablet that was split approximately down the middle. A deep crack runs almost the full height of the exterior along one corner, stopping about one inch from the undamaged end. This crack has been repaired with a clear adhesive. There are other incomplete vertical hairline cracks on the incised faces. This fragment has a broken piece detached from one of its ends. This break and the interior surface are rough and uneven. The interior has a green/dark gray patina over much of the surface. A small amount of this residue is on the lower portion of the exterior, near the flat end. A shiny material is visible in some cracks; this is possibly adhesive or some other substance used to coat the fragment.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound. When complete, this prism contained the entire 124 line composition.
Box 13

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 96220  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Too fragmentary to reconstruct)
Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 1 3/8" depth, misshapen lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that was partially crushed while the clay was still wet, leaving it misshapen. One face is light orange and the other is milky-tan. The light orange face has two side-by-side scrapes from a modern tool near the edge. A crack runs through one of the scrapes and about half way through the side to the opposite face. Another crack at the opposite end of this face also continues onto a side. There is one complete crack on this face; it runs almost through the middle, but it is a very slender crack. The milky-tan face shows the complete crack just described. On one edge there is a fragile bulging point with a deep crack and two small chips that look like they may dislodge. One fragment has already dislodged and has been placed in the storage bag. From this face, a narrow diagonal scrape is visible on the side; it appears to be made by a modern tool, because it does not have the same patina as the rest of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names. Due to the surface damage the text is largely illegible.
Box 13

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96221  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "lugal" Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'King of the universe';

2. 'The red(?) king';

3. 'King of life'
Physical Description: 2 5/8" height x 3 1/8" width x 5/8" depth, lentil
Condition: Lenticular tablet with two gouges or grooves carved or filed out of it, giving it an hour glass shape. This treatment is old, as the smooth, even edges of the grooves have the same patina as the rest of the tablet. The inscribed face has two shallow areas of spalling - one above and one below the side groove. One edge of the tablet adjacent to the opposite groove has a chipped loss. The plain face has an area of spalling at the edge by one groove and an area of tan-colored fill at the edge by the other groove. There is a small break and gouge near the edge on the opposite side of the groove from the fill.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "lugal" (king).
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Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96222a-b  School text, administrative exercise of payments to workers Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5" height x 2 5/8" width x 1" depth, baked red rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments with an "X" across obverse
Condition: Rectangular, flat cuneiform tablet with an area of loss in one corner. On the face where that area of loss is larger, a thin piece of the surface has spalled off in two pieces. The pieces have been reattached with some small losses remaining, and adhesive is visible.This damage is most visible when the tablet is viewed in profile. The flatter end has a deep crack showing adhesive residue and a small crack, but the residue does not extend beyond the crack. The tablet appears coated with a glossy substance. All surfaces have scattered dark black marks.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice in writing administrative documents is dated to Samsu-ditana, year 14 of his reign (c. 1612). Samsu-ditana is the last king of the Old Babylonian dynasty.
Box 13

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 96223  School text, mathematical exercise of surveying Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/2" height x 1 3/4" width x 1/2" depth, red rectangular tablet
Condition: Small, flat, rectangular tablet that is mostly complete except for losses at one corner. One face of the tablet appears complete; the other face is damaged by losses and has five or six small, round holes punched into the surface. There are scattered tiny cracks on both faces of the tablet. The tablet appears to be coated with a glossy substance. Both faces have scattered grayish-black residue.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This text contains a student's practice in surveying areas of land. This tablet includes a note from the scribe, "drawing of the lower part (of a field)."
Box 13

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 96224  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'I saw his strength';

2. 'I saw her strength';

3. 'I saw the strength of Ishtar';

4. (Written by) 'Suen advised'
Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 1 3/4" depth, baked lentil with the obverse destroyed and the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet inscribed on only one side. The uninscribed side has depressions and smears that appear to be finger impressions made when the clay was still wet. The inscribed face has a gouge at one edge with some loose fragments in it; these fragments may be at risk for loss. There are hairline cracks in the clay in the area all around the gouge. There are two chips in the edge of the face close to the gouge. One of these chips adjoins a deep crack, part of which goes through to the opposite face. The uninscribed face has a gouge near the edge with two chipped losses adjacent to it. The gouge meets a deep crack that extends across this face and partially goes through to the inscribed face. This face has a few jagged edges from the finger mark (?) depressions . These jagged edges may be at risk for loss.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary student exercise contains unusual personal names. The text is signed by its scribe Ur-Suen.
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Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96225  School text, sign exercise from TU-TA-TI and letter exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 2 1/4" width x 1 1/4" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet with transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: The tablet is misshapen; slightly rounded (concave on one face, convex on the other). One corner is pushed up into the body. Deformation clearly took place when the clay was still wet. There are deep "cuts" in two places on one face. There is no adhesive or surface coating . The tablet appears very stable.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise has the introduction to a letter on the obverse, which has been drawn over in antiquity. The reverse has both part of a letter and a section of TU-TA-TI transposed.
Box 13

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96227  School text, administrative exercise and lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/2" height x 1 3/4" width x 5/8" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet with transposed writing on the reverse
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment. There is a loss at one corner, another edge is lost, and there are surface losses from spalling near the edge that has been lost. there are other minor surface losses and chips overall. There are a number of incomplete cracks throughout. A coating appears to have been applied on the surface of the fragment.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise has an administrative exercise on the obverse and a short section of Akkadian personal names transposed on the reverse
Box 13

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 96228  School text, sign exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. A divine being
Physical Description: 3" height x 2 1/2" width x 1" depth, red baked rectangular tablet with the reverse effaced
Condition: A small, nearly complete tablet with one small loss to one corner. One face is incised with the same star-shaped symbol repeatedly. The reverse face is uninscribed. The tablet is well fired.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound of the AN, LI and HAL signs.
Box 14

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 52162  School text, lexical exercise from OB Lu-Azlag D Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 3/8" height x 4 1/8" width x 1" depth, rectangular multi-column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of brown clay. There are three triangular gouges on the flat face most likely made with a modern tool: one is close to the center, this gouge is partially covered with an adhesive. There is a smaller triangular gouge on this face near another corner. This gouge is deep and it is unclear whether or not it was made while the clay was still wet or after the clay dried. Another, rougher gouge across an edge was most likely made with a modern tool. Some of the clay on this edge near this gouge has been scraped or pushed up from the convex face, most likely when the clay was still wet, so some pieces of clay extend out from that edge. There is another gouge across a different edge that is smoother with a patina similar to the rest of the tablet. This possibly could indicate this gouge was made when the clay was still wet. There is a large area on the flat face that looks worn away. There are some patches on the convex face that look to have been roughly scraped, possibly while the clay was still wet, based on the patina. There is a complete crack running from one side of the convex face across an edge. There is a white patch in one area on the convex face that looks like a thin layer of deposits. There are some white concretions visible throughout.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a student's vocabulary practice in writing descriptions of humans and human conditions (both mental and physical).
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Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 52164a-b  School text, lexical exercise from OB Nippur Lu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. To tighten the strings

2. To slacked the strings

3. Fastened strings

4. To tune up

5. To tune down

6. Part of an instrument?

7. To tune

8. The fret

9. A musician

10. A chief musician

11. A string player

12. A musician in the service of the suhurla women

13. A royal musician

14. An apprentice musician

15. A … musician

16. A musician of a shrine

17. A musician of a divine shrine

18. A musician with a loud voice
Physical Description: 5" height x 2 5/8" width x 11/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: This rectangular tablet is actively crumbling; there are loose particles of clay in the storage bag. The tablet is inscribed on one face only. It was broken into two pieces that were reattached using clear adhesive. On the inscribed face, lines of adhesive are on the surface of the face at the reattached break, at an incomplete diagonal crack extending from the break, and at a break that runs from about the center of the face out to the edge. Adhesive has also bled along some of the inscribed lines on the face. One corner of the face has an approximately-square loss. A thin crack extending from this loss has adhesive covering it. The corner opposite the square loss has a larger diagonal loss. A third corner is spalled. There is a gouged loss at one edge of the tablet that adjoins the crack filled with adhesive (described above). The uninscribed face is very fragile with a dry, flaking texture overall. The clay particles in the bag almost certainly flaked from this face. The repaired break in the tablet is visible on this face, and adhesive is present on the surface. The short end of this face closest to the repaired reak has losses to both corners, gouges, and flaking. There is a small loss to a third corner. There is a goughed loss at one edge (also visible on the inscribed face). There are tiny flaking cracks scattered throughout this face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of professions. Water was used to erase the reverse in an effort to recycle clay for students' exercises.
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Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 52168  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "ur" Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'Servant of knowledge'

2. 'Servant of flesh'

3. 'Servant of the smith'
Physical Description: 3 3/8" diameter x 7/8" depth, lentil
Condition: Lenticular tablet with two large clusters of mineral deposits: the first cluster is on the inscribed face and the second is partially on the edge and partially on the convex face. There is a loss along the edge near the second cluster. There is another loss at one area of the edge that extends across the surface on the convex face. There is a shallow loss at the center of the convex face, surrounded with scratch marks. It is unclear whether these were made while the clay was still wet or after the clay had dried as the entire tablet is a deep brown color. There are some other minor surface losses and scratches overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "ur". This acrographic arrangment was popular among ancient Mesopotamian vocabularies.
Box 14

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52165  School text, lexical exercise from Proto-Lu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 9/16" height x 3 15/16" width x 1 3/8" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with one inscribed face mostly intact and the opposite face with about half of the inscribed surface lost to spalling. About half of one short side of the intact face is broken off and is lost. Almost all of the opposite short side is broken and lost, except one corner that is damaged by a gouge. One long side of this face is broken and spalled, creating a diagonal edge. There are some shiny white deposits on this face- mostly on one end- that may be salt. The opposite face has lost about 2/3 of the inscribed surface to spalling. Only one corner is intact; a second corner is broken and lost; and one whole short side is broken and badly spalled. A deep crack within the tablet is visible at the broken short side. A hairline crack runs from the broken/spalled short side toward the center of this face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of professions.
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Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96218  School text, sign exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Mouth

2. (Written by) 'The servant of Ninsun'
Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 1 1/8" depth, red lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet fragment with large losses overall, particularly along the edges. Two of the area with losses have modern tool marks, indicating these losses are not ancient. There is one loss that may have occurred (at least partially) while the clay was still wet: there is a deep ditch on the convex face and the clay that has been pressed and pushed from this ditch forms a mound on the opposite face. Portions of both faces have some spalling, however, the losses are deeper on the convex face. There are some minor surface losses and incomplete cracks overall. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound of the KA sign ("mouth"). The text is signed by its scribe, Ur-Ninsun.
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Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 52166a-c  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 4 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 2 1/4" width x 13/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that broke into three pieces that where reattached with clear adhesive. One broken piece is a corner; the tablet also broke approximately across the middle. Both faces and three of the sides have adhesive visible on the surface at the breaks, and the adhesive has bled welll beyond the boundaries of the breaks. One face has a small, thin loss along the repaired corner break. The repaired center break has areas of spalling along the repair, particularly at one edge. The long sides of the tablet along this break do not fit together cleanly; there is a small gap where the two broken pieces come together. The opposite face has a deep area of spalling along the corner break and along the second break; both of these areas are heavily covered with adhesive. There is a smalll hole at the approximate center of this face that runs into the interior of the tablet. There are scattered white deposits on this face (one deposit below the corner break is shiny and possibly crystalline). One corner is spalled.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 4 list of stone objects.
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Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 52171  School text, sign exercise from Proto-Lu Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Temple administrator

2. Associate temple administrator

3. Governor
Physical Description: 2 13/16" diameter x 11/16" depth, lentil
Condition: Disc-shaped tablet that is only inscribed on one face. There are two minor losses at one edge of the tablet. The uninscribed face has a chip near one edge with a small pit within it. Across from that there is a gouge. About 2/3 of the uninscribed face is partially spalled.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of professions.
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Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52169a-b  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 3 1/8" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil
Condition: Disc-shaped tablet with inscription on one face only. It appears to have been compressed while the clay was still wet, leaving it somewhat misshapen. The tablet broke approximately in half diagonally; the two pieces were reattached with clear adhesive. Adhesive is visible on the surface of both faces, but moreso on the uninscribed face. The inscribed face has an area of spalling adjacent to the repaired break. There are two small, chipped losses at one edge, and both have white material (stone?) within them. The uninscribed face has a diagonal gouge at one edge that appears to be caused by a strike from a modern tool. There is a spalled loss at one end of the repaired break. About half of this face has several shallow, pitted losses. Many of these pitted spots have white material (stone?) within them.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This elementary exercise in sign and sound formation allowed the new scribe to practice forming the basic signs: U, BAR and LA2.
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Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 52170  School text, sign exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. To place

2. (Written) 9 times
Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 13/16" depth, lentil joined from fragments
Condition: Disc-shaped tablet inscribed on one face only. The tablet has two large losses at the edge; the larger of the losses is also spalled on the inscribed face. There is a small, chipped loss at the edge that is more prominent on the uninscribed face. The uninscribed face has a long, diagonal scratch and small gouge running across center. This appears to be the result of a modern tool strike.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary exercise allowed the new scribe to practice forming the basic signs: GAR (to place) and BA (to distribute). Note the presence of a tally at the bottom of the tablet counting the total number of signs written on the tablet.
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Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 52172  School text, literary exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. From 'The true man';

2. From Lu-si…

3. “zi”-garments to be cut.
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 3" width x 1 1/4" depth, lentil joined from fragments with the bottom face inscribed
Condition: Tablet that is mostly round, but with one disc-shaped edge. A chipped loss is missing from one edge. The tablet is inscribed on only one face. The inscribed face has several scattered cracks that are deep but incomplete. These cracks are over-filled with clear adhesive, so adhesive has bled onto the surface of the face. There is a small, chipped loss at center and another below a large patch of adhesive. The uninscribed face has a patch of adhesive at one edge covering a crack. The surface is uneven, with scattered chips and spots of spalling.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet is too damage to reconstruct the text written by a student. This small tablet was likely an excerpt from a piece of literature.
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Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 52173a-c  School text, literary exercise from Lipit-Eshtar B Early Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900 BCE)

Translation:

1. The inner words,

2. You know its truth,

3. (king) Lipit-Eshtar.
Physical Description: 3 1/4" diameter x 3/4" depth, lentil joined from fragments with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that has broken into three pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. Two of the pieces are much smaller -- the breaks are close to the edge of the tablet. Along one of the breaks, there is a chip at the edge of one of the breaks, as well as a few other small losses. There are incomplete cracks on both faces, but more on the convex face. There are two black spots on one part of the edge. There are other minor surface losses and scratched overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is an advanced student's exercise excerpt from Lipit-Eshtar's Praise in the Eduba. This exercise contains lines 32-33.
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Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96239  School text, administrative exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 1 7/8" width x 1 1/16" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Fragment of a rectangular tablet. One long side has an area of spalling and two gouges. All of this damage has the same patina as the rest of the fragment, so it is not recent. A small white sticker with "2" written in blue ink was adhered to the side, between the area of spalling and the gouges. This sticker was removed at the time of condition reporting. One face has three small areas of light scraping near the unbroken corner. These areas have a lighter patina than the clay around them and may have been made by a modern tool strike. The opposite face has an area of spalling on part of one edge, following the contour of the break.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic student exercise in drafting administrative documents. Administrative texts are the most prevalent and popular type of ancient Mesopotamian text, so the scribe need ample practice to master this genre.
Box 15

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 96229  School text, sign exercise of diri compounds Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 3" width x 7/8" depth, baked lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Fragment of a lenticular tablet, with about 1/4 to 1/3 of the tablet missing. The break has a relatively clean, smooth edge. The clay on one face of the tablet has turned a milky white, but the other face and the interior (exposed at the break) is orange. The milky-white face has a gouge and an area of spalling at one edge adjacent to the break, and a long, slender gouge at the edge adjacent to the opposite end of the break. The orange face has a slender, short crack at one edge.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in compound sign formation. There are notes between practice signs, presumably from a teacher.
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Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 96230  School text, legal exercise of a loan contract Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 5/16" height x 2 3/8" width x 7/8" depth, red rectangular multi-column fragment
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with large losses. Two edges and a portion of a third edge are jagged from losses. There is a large loss to the surface of one face -- almost half of the depth of the tablet is missing in that area. The other face has a triangular loss on the surface near one corner. The remainder of one and a portion of another edge have some minor surface losses. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student practice contract contains barley loans. The contents of the reverse is uncertain.
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Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96234  School text, literary exercise from a proverb Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. A swift man caught a gazelle,

2. A strong man carried it away,

3. A man having a mouth brought it to the palace.
Physical Description: 4" diameter x 7/8" depth, baked lentil
Condition: Lenticular tablet made of orange clay. Both faces have large areas covered with a red material. This material may be fill, but on one face, orange clay is visible beneath the red, so it may be paint. One face has a long, relatively deep crack running for about two inches along one edge. There is a second, shorter crack to one side of the area covered with red material. The opposite face has a large circular gouge at one edge. Further above this there is a group of five small gouges. Two of these gouges are long and slender and appear to be caused by a modern tool. A deeper, long gouge runs immediately adjacent to one portion of the face that is painted red. One edge of this face- also adjacent to a red area- also has a deep gouge. There are a few chipped losses along the edge of this face.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is from a proverb.
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Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96501  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 3/16" height x 1 13/16" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet that is actively crumbling. There are some surface losses overall, including some losses at three of the corners. There are modern tool marks at one corner as well as across one edge. There are some incomplete cracks overall. One particulalry long crack that runs across most of one edge is covered with a clear adhesive. There is another spot covered with clear adhesive on one face enar a corner, however, there does not seem to be a crack in this area. There are some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student practice problem for equivalencies between units of length.
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Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 96235  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 4 5/8" height x 2 5/8" width x 1 5/16" depth, rectangular multi-column fragment
Condition: Fragment of a rectangular tablet. One long side has an area of spalling and two gouges. All of this damage has the same patina as the rest of the fragment, so it is not recent. A small white sticker with "2" written in blue ink was adhered to the side, between the area of spalling and the gouges. This sticker was removed at the time of condition reporting. One face has three small areas of light scraping near the unbroken corner. These areas have a lighter patina than the clay around them and may have been made by a modern tool strike. The opposite face has an area of spalling on part of one edge, following the contour of the break.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
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Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96238a-c  School text, administrative exericse of ration lists Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" diameter x 13/16" depth, baked multi-column lentil joined from fragments
Condition: Lenticular tablet that was broken into three pieces and very inexpertly repaired. The tablet broke approximately in half, and then one small section broke off of one of the halves. The reattached pieces are badly misaligned, and a large amount of adhesive is applied within breaks and over much of the surface of both faces. On one face, the point where the smallest piece was reattached has a deep gouge on the interior edge; tiny fragments are visible but are heavily glued. A large, gouged crack/loss is at the edge of the tablet where part of the middle-sized reattached piece has been lost. On the largest reattached piece, there is a small deposit of a white-tan colored material near the edge furthest from the repaired breaks. The opposite face shows the same losses to the tablet overall that are described above. Even in the unbroken portion, a large quantity of adhesive covers the face and has run down to the edge of the tablet. A piece of white fiberous material is stuck in the adhesive. Some small, scattered areas on this face are dark gray and appear to be actually saturated with adhesive. There are two areas of tan-colored fill on this face: one is next to where the smallest broken piece is reattached, and the second area is just below the first.The color of the fill blends with the color of the actual clay of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student practice text contains lists of rations distributed to workers as payment. This tablet has a very unusual layout.
Box 15

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96240a-b  School text, administrative exercise of ration lists Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/2" height x 1 7/8" width x 1" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into two pieces. These two pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There are some losses along the break, particularly along the break on the uninscribed face. On this same face, there are shallow craters. It is unclear whether these were made when the clay was wet or after the tablet was fired. There is also some spalling and some thin crevices that are possibly from folds in the clay when it was still wet, or from losses. There is an incomplete hairline crack near one edge on this face. There are some other minor surface chips and scratches overall. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student practice text contains lists of rations distributed to workers as payment.
Box 15

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 96244a-d  School text, stylus exercise of a drawing of a goat and fish Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/2" H x 4 3/8" W x 5/8" depth, rectangular tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into four pieces. These four pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. One of these pieces is near the corner and is a surface loss. There are some losses along portions of one of the breaks. There are notable losses on one edge along the two breaks that run across this edge. A coating appears to have been applied to the surface of the tablet. There are many incomplete cracks visible overall, particularly around existing breaks. There is one complete crack running over an edge. There are some minor losses such as chips and craters on the surface. It is possible some of these minor losses were created when the clay was still wet.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text was originally a student letter exercise on obverse, which was erased and replaced with drawing of a goat and fish. Part of the letter is still legible on the reverse.
Box 15

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 96245  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/8" H x 3 1/4" W x 1 13/16" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet with losses at two corners. One corner broke off and was reattached, with some loss to the face. The piece that was reattached is a slightly lighter color. The crack from the break is still visible on the corner of the face and on the side. The corner diagonally opposite is partially chipped; this loss is more substantial on the uninscribed face. The tablet appears coated with a glossy substance.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names.
Box 15

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96247  School text, sign exercise from Syllable Alphabet A Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation: (Syllabary--no translation)
Physical Description: 1 1/16" height x 7/8" width x 1" depth, baked small square prism
Condition: [missing in report]
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
Box 15

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96248  School text, sign exercise of the "a" sign Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Water
Physical Description: 2 1/4" height x 2 1/4" width x 9/16" depth, baked square tablet
Condition: Square tablet with a small chip and loss at one corner. Close to the diagonally opposite corner there is a small loss, but this loss is more clearly visible on one face than on the other. The tablet does not appear coated. It is lighter in color than many other tablets- it is dark tan rather than orange.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound. This tablet is a possible fake. The scribe wrote the sign for "water" in irregularly shaped columns and cases, transposing columns on the same face.
Box 15

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 96249a-e  School text, sign exercise from an unidentified syllable alphabet Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 1/2" height x 1 1/16" width x 1/2" depth, baked ovoid single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Small, ovoid tablet that has broken into at least five pieces that have been reattached with clear adhesive. One small reattached piece at the edge is not well fitted and may become separated again. One face shows far more of the breaks and cracks than the other. One end of this face appears to have been compressed (by a thumb?) when the clay was still wet. There is a deep crack across part of the compressed area, with adhesive visible inside. Several additional cracks and breaks are below this area and spread toward center. The opposite face has much clearer inscription. One break runs across the tablet with a deep crack running into the break perpendicularly. There is a loss to the tablet below the small, poorly reattached fragment; this is visible on both faces.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound.
Box 15

Item: 12 Cotsen ID: 96250  School text, sign exercise from TU-TA-TI Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

(Surface damaged)

Reverse

1. Distant

2. Hoe

3. …

4. …

5. Destroy

6. Large

7. Treasure

8. …
Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 3" width x 7/8" depth, red baked rectangular double column tablet
Condition: The tablet has one small loss to one corner. One face is distorted by cuts that appear to have been made when the clay was still wet. The damaged face appears to have been coated.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This beginner's exercise is a practice in sign formation and sound. Notice that the tablet rotates left-to-right not top-to-bottom as is customary.
Box 16

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 40738a-d  School text, mathemtical exercise of metrology Ur III - Early Old Babylonian Period (c. 2100-1800 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 7/8" diameter x 3 1/4" depth, hexagonal rounded prism joined from fragments
Condition: Cylindrical tablet fragment with an intentional hole running down the center. The fragment has broken into four pieces. The four pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The adhesive is visible in the breaks and on the surface in some areas around the breaks. There are also a number of crevices and losses, particularly around and by the breaks. There is a small loss that has been reattached in one of the crevices. There are also other losses to the surface. One end of the tablet has groove marks across the surface, most likely made by an implement, possibly to break this fragment apart from another piece. On this same end, there is a deep loss. There are white concretions overall. The fragment is actively crumbling in some places.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student exercise is practice writing and understanding silver weights comprised of the whole range of metrological units: grains, shekels, minas and talents.
Box 16

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 40740a-?  School text, literary exercise from the Kesh Temple Hymn Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 3/4" height x 3" width x 3 1/8" depth, square prism joined from fragments
Condition: This large, rectangular tablet is perforated with a 9/16" hole through its length. It has been broken into an unknown number of pieces and reassembled using a clear, shiny adhesive. The adhesive appears to have been applied to all cracks and breaks. The tablet is actively crumbling. Tiny detached bits can be found in the polyethelene bag. There appear to be deposits/encrustations, possibly salts, on one end and on the interiror of the perforation as well as on the large surface loss. In general, the repairs are poorly fit together and the object is extremely fragile.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced exercise is a complete edition of Kesh Temple Hymn. The earliest attestations of this hymn date back to the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2600-2350 BCE).
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Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96237a-d  School text, mathematical exercise of a multiplication table Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 3/4" height x 5 5/16" width x 1 1/4" depth, large rectangular multi-column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into four pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. This clear adhesive is visible along the breaks. One of the pieces was not properly aligned when reattached and/or there are several losses along this break, because there is a gap between this piece and the other two pieces. There is a sizeable, deep loss at the center of the tablet where the breaks converge. There is another loss to the surface of the flat face at a center edge. There are losses to two of the corners. There are other losses to the surface overall, as well as losses along the breaks. There are several incomplete cracks visible overall. There are some patches of a a transluscent white substance overall. There are some small white concretions visible in the crevices of one of the corner losses and in some of the cuneiform impressions as well.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student practice problem based on a multiplication table for 50. The reverse contains area measurements.
Box 16

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 52163a-b  School text, lexical exercise from Ura 1 Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 8 3/8" height x 4 3/16" width x 2 1/8" depth, square prism joined from fragments
Condition: A large rectangular tablet with inscriptions retained on only one face. The tablet has been broken into at least two pieces and repaired. The repairs appear to have been made with a white glue/adhesive that was coated with dirt or clay to disguise the repair. One face of the tablet is lost and the remaining piece appears to be approximately 1/2 of a large, perforated tablet. The central channel of the perforation is still visable on the damaged "face". There is a hole on one edge that resembles those made by boring insects.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This student vocabular exercise is taken from the Old Babylonian Ura 1 list of wooden objects. The complete face of the prism is the end of the list, complete with a colophon.
Box 16

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96502  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with two losses on the face with more cuneiform insciriptions. there is one V-shaped gouge, most likely made with a modern tool. There is another pit-like gouge near one corner. There is a small chip on the other face toward the center of an edge. There is an incomplete crack measuring about 1" running across one edge. There are some white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student practice problem based on a multiplication table for 9.
Box 16

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96503  School text, mathematical exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/8" height x 1 15/16" width x 3/4" depth, rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a deep, jagged incomplete crack that runs over an edge across one face. There is a loss along a portion of this crack, and another loss at one corner. A clear adhesive covers the crack and the two losses. There is another spot of adhesive on one edge, but there is no crack or loss in this area. There are a few scratches to the surface, most likely made with a modern tool. There are a few other incomplete cracks on the tablet. There are white concretions visible overall.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student practice problem based on a multiplication table for 7 1/2.
Box 17

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 96254  School text, mathematical exercise in reciprocals Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. n ~ 20 | 6 ~ 40 n

2. 3 ~ 30 […]

(Remaining lines damaged)

Reverse

(Damaged)
Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 3 5/8" width x 3/4" depth, baked square tablet with the reverse destroyed
Condition: Tablet fragment that appears to be a portion of a rectangular tablet. One face is mostly intact, but the other face has been damaged by losses from spalling, leaving an uneven surface with varying thicknesses. A deep crack filled with adhesive runs down one side into the corner, where a deep chunk has been lost. Across from that crack is a small piece of white stone embedded in the clay. Both faces have scattered black/gray residue. The more damaged face appears to be coated with an unknown substance. The area around the deep crack is particularly glossy---this may be the same adhesive that is in the crack.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This student text is a practice tablet of reciprocals of 16,000 (1/16,000). This tablet is a possible fake.
Box 17

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 96255a-d  School text, lexical exercise of personal names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 3/4" diameter x 13/16" depth, baked lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Lenticular tablet that has broken into four pieces. The four pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is one main piece and three smaller pieces near the edge of the tablet. There are three losses along the edge of the tablet that look to have been made by a modern implement. There is a pit-like gouge close to the edge near the same spot on each face. There are several incomplete cracks overall on the flat face. There are groove marks overall on the surface, possibly made when the clay was still wet. There are some groove marks, which look similar to erasure marks, made by hand while the clay was still wet. The clay ranges in color from darker red-brown with some black patched to a lighter red- tan color. The three reattached pieces seem to be lighter in color on the convex face compared to the color of the largest piece. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This brief exercise is a student's vocabulary practice. The colophon on reverse enclosed in a rectangle, an unusual practice in ancient Mesopotamia.
Box 17

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96260  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "lu2" Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 5/16" diameter x 1/2" depth, baked lentil with the reverse inscribed
Condition: Small lenticular tablet with one flattened edge; this edge appears to have been compressed while the clay was still wet. On one face there is a smooth, even loss at one edge that looks like a strike from a modern tool. The outside edge of the tablet is unevenly broken here. On the opposite face, the scrape from the tool is not visible, but the uneven, broken edge is more pronounced. There is a very small, fine crack near the center of this face. The tablet may have been lightly coated with a clear substance.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names that begin with "lu2". The reverse is a study on the phonetic values of the names on the obverse.
Box 17

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 96261a-b  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "mu" Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'The assembler';

2. 'Benefactress';

3. 'The seller';

4. 'The shelterer';

5. 'The multitude';

6. 'The intelligent one'
Physical Description: 3 7/16" height x 3" width x 3/4" depth, red baked square single column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: An almost square tablet broken into two pieces and repaired. The repair is relatively well done. Adhesive is confined to the repair area. The tablet appears well fired.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names. This text is nearly identical to 96262.
Box 17

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96262  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "mu" Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. 'The assembler';

2. 'Benefactress';

3. 'The seller';

4. 'The shelterer';

5. 'The multitude';

6. 'The intelligent one'
Physical Description: 3 3/8" height x 3" width x 7/8" depth, red baked square single column tablet
Condition: A complete, almost square tablet. There is one pit-like loss on one face. The tablet is stable and appears well-fired. There is also a distortion of the eclay at one edge that appears to have happened when the clay was wet.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names. This text is nearly identical to 96261.
Box 17

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96263  School text, lexical exercise of bronze objects Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. A double edged bronze ax

2. A bronze cauldron

3. A perforated bronze cauldron

4. A bronze lance

5. A bronze dagger

6. A bronze statue

7. A bronze pedestal

8. A bronze (statue) of a protective deity
Physical Description: 4 1/8" height x 4" width x 1 1/8" depth, red baked square double column tablet with the second column erased
Condition: Tablet is fragmentary; a large section is broken evenly and lost from one end. There is a loss to one corner. A web of deep, but not complete, cracks radiated out from the lost corner. There are deep but incomplete cracks on the reverse side which has no cuneiform impressions. There is no evidence of adhesive; the surface may be coated or the object is well fired. Possible tool mark (from excavation ?) in broken edge. Other horizontal toolmarks on uninscribed face are probably the result of a wood stylus (in antiquity).
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary student exercise is practice writing basic vocabulary for metal objects. This text is not part of a known vocabulary list.
Box 17

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 96268  School text, lexical exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 1/4" height x 2 1/4" width x 1 1/4" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Long, rectangular tablet with one face mostly intact and the other with significant losses. The intact face is somewhat convex. It has an incomplete crack approximately 1 1/2 inches long, slighly off-center, running across the incised lines. There are two hairline cracks below the more damaged edge and several hairline cracks below the damaged edge on the more damaged face. There is distortion to the opposite end where the wet clay was pushed up. The more damaged face has deep cuts and losses, probably made by a modern tool during excavation. There are two additional such marks on one edge of the damaged face. The losses to the damaged face appear to have occured in antiquity, as the surface patina covers them. Some writing is preserved along one edge of this face.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This brief exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 17

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 96264a-c  School text, lexical exercise of plant names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. …

2. A type of weed

3. A type of grass

4. A type of grass

5. …

6. A type of cut grass

7. …

8. A type of plant

9. A cobweb

10. …

11. A thorny weed

12. “His mother” plant

13. “His child” plant

14. A type of plant

15. “Property” plant

16. Licorice

17. A type of grass

18. A type of grass

19. “Camel” plant
Physical Description: 3 5/8" height x 2 1/16" width x 3/4" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet joined from fragments with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet that has broken into three pieces. The three pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. There is a deep surface loss on the uninscribed face where the breaks converge. There are other small losses along the breaks at three of the corners as well as on the surface overall. There are incomplete cracks overall. There are patches of a yellow-brown substance on the surface visible throughout -- this is possibly dirt. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary student exercise is practice writing basic vocabulary for plants. This text is not part of a known vocabulary list.
Box 17

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96266  School text, lexical exercise from bilingual kagal = abullu Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3" height x 2 3/8" width x 3/4" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Tablet fragment. The tablet has breaks and losses to every corner and edge. There are shallow, vertical cracking on both faces. The surface appears to have been coated.
Language of Material: Sumerian and Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This elementary student exercise is practice writing agricultural terminology.
Box 17

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96267a-h  School text, lexical exercise of personal names beginning with "Nanna" and Proto-An = Anum Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 5/8" height x 3" width x 1 1/8" depth, red baked rectangular tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with a large portion lost so that two of the edges are quite uneven. The fragment has broken into eight pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. The clear adhesive is visible along portions of the breaks. Two of the pieces are actually roughly a portion of the tablet that has split in half depth-wise. A few of the other pieces are much smaller than others. There are losses along the breaks creating jagged edges and crevices. There is an area near one of the edges on the convex face that is spalling. There are incomplete cracks and other minor surface losses overall. A coating has been applied to the surface of the fragment.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise is practice writing personal names beginning with the deity name "Nanna". The reverse is a selection from the Old Babylonian word list Proto-An = Anum.
Box 17

Item: 11 Cotsen ID: 96270  School text, lexical exercise from Proto-Ea with pronunciation glosses Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

3'. …

4'. …

5'. …

6'. City

7'. …

8'. …

9'. Dagger

10'. …

11'. A bush

12'. Burn

13'. Wool

14'. Stone cutter

15'. A fly

16'. …

17'. …

18'. To place

Column 2

1. …

2. …

3. To break

4. A ration

5. A ration

6. To press

7. To spread

8. …

9. Youth

10. To dig

11. …

12. Pig

13. To winnow

14. …

15. Place

16. …

17. To speak

18. Equal

19. Healthy

Reverse

Column 1

1. Stomach

2. Hand

3. Large

4. …

5. Non-precious stone

6. Hill

7. Month

8. Priest

9. Head

10. …

11. …

12. …

13. …

14. Angry

15. …

16. Mouth

17. Word

18. …

19. Tooth

Column 2

1. To speak

2. Voice

3. To speak

4. …

5. Skull

6. To go

7. To bring

8. To bring

9. To establish

10. To stand

11. To go

12. …

13. …

14. To bring

15. …
Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 2 1/8" width x 7/8" depth, red rectangular double column tablet
Condition: There is a large loss to one corner and a smaller loss of an adjacent corner. No adhesive is present. Tablet appears well fired; the surface does not appear to be coated.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice taken from the list Proto-Ea. This student practice has glosses to assist the student in learning to pronounce the signs and words.
Box 18

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 96271  School text, lexical exercise from Early Dynastic Lu A with pronunciation glosses Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/4" height x 2 1/8" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular double column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Tablet worked only on one face. The inscribed face has a shallow loss/abrasion at one corner. The clay on the inscribed face is pale greenish-gray in color, very different from most of the other tablets. One end of it is almost milky-white in color. The opposite face is heavily covered with a black residue, but it also has flecks of a bright white substance. There are two gashes to one side on this face. There is a a small gouge on the short side of the tablet close to these gashes.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice in professions taken from the list Lu A. This student practice has glosses to assist the student in learning to pronounce the signs and words.
Box 18

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 96272a-d  School text, lexical exercise from various Early Dynastic lists Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 1/2" height x 4 1/2" width x 1 3/4" depth, red baked multi-column fragment joined from fragments
Condition: A fragment of what must have been a large tablet. The clay is a bright red, and the surface appears to have been treated with some type of coating. This fragment has been reassembled from four or more pieces adhered together with an unidentified, clear adhesive. There is a triangular-shaped, red-colored fill on one face. On the same face there is a gouge that is probably a tool mark made during excavation.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic exercise is a student's vocabulary practice.
Box 18

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96273a-?  School text, literary exercise from a hymn to Inanna Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4 1/2" diameter x 11/16" depth, baked multi-column lentil joined from fragments
Condition: A lenticular tablet that has broken into numerous pieces and been reassembled. The fragments have been attached with an unidentified, clear adhesive. One small fragment has recently detached and is in the poly bag. This appears to be lost through spalling due to salt crystals. The area with the loss has a build up of a white concretion material, probably salt. There is a long gouge running vertically down the convex face that appears to have been made when the clay was wet. The convex face has multiple hairline cracks.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is a literary excerpt from a hymn to the goddess Inanna. The second column is blank. This format is an unusual exercise and layout.
Box 18

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 96274a-e  School text, literary exercise from Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4" height x 2 3/4" width x 7/8" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment that has broken into five pieces. These pieces have been reattached with an adhesive. This adhesive is visible in portions of the crack. There are deep crevices along the breaks due to several losses, particularly on the face with less cuneiform impressions. There is a large loss at one corner. An incomplete crack extends from one of the breaks on the face with more cuneiform impressions. There are two deep scores across one edge made by a modern implement. There are some minor surface losses throughout. A coating has been applied to at least a portion of the surface.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is a literary excerpt from Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven. The text is signed by its scribe.
Box 18

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96275  School text, literary exercise from Lugal-e and scribal dialogues Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 4" height x 2 1/2" width x 3/4" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: The tablet seems stable. One corner is broken and lost. Some hairline cracks along the loss. There is no evidence of adhesive, but the surface appears to have been coated.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is a literary excerpt from Lugal-e (lines 100-109). The reverse contains a dialogue between two scribes.
Box 18

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96276  School text, administrative exercise of month names Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. Month 1: 'Shrine placed to the side';

2. Month 2: 'The horned ox marches forth';

3. Month 3: 'The brick';

4. Month 4: 'To seed';

5. Month 5: 'The lamps are lit';

6. Month 6: 'The work of Inanna';

7. Month 7: 'The shining mound';

8. Month 8: 'The plow is released';

Reverse

1. Month 9: '…';

2. Month 10: '…';

3. Month 11: 'Emmer …';

4. Month 12: 'Barley cutting';

5. Month 13: '… barley cutting';
Physical Description: 2 3/8" height x 1 13/16" width x 3/4" depth, baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet with a loss at one corner. Marks at this corner indicate a modern tool created this loss. On one face, there is a gouge that looks like it was created with an implement. It is unclear if this gouge was formed when the clay was still wet, or if the damage occurred after firing. There are a few minor surface losses. A coating has been applied to the surface of the tablet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise allowed the scribe to practice writing the month names from the Nippur calendar. Each major city in the Ur III period had its own unique list and ordering of month names.
Box 18

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 96280a-c  School text, administrative exercise of year names Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 3/8" height x 4 1/4" width x 1 1/8" depth, baked rectangular multi-column tablet
Condition: This tablet fragment was broken into three pieces and reattached using a clear adhesive. Two of the three pieces are corner pieces. Two corners are broken and lost. There is adhesive visible in the cracks where the three pieces were rejoined- there are some knotched losses at one side, and the flat edge of one corner is missing. Where the pieces were rejoined there are some deep holes, but they are small in diameter; these holes are the result of losses to the reattached pieces. The opposite face is mostly lost through spalling and is rough and uneven. The original surface of the tablet remains along one edge, where the inscription is retained. The tablet fragment appears to be coated with a glossy substance. A dark black substance is scattered on both faces.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise allowed the scribe to practice writing the year names from the First Babylonian dynasty (c. 1894-1595 BCE). Based on the year names it is likely this tablet dates to Ammi-ditana, year 15 (c. 1670 BCE).
Box 18

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 96279  School text, administrative exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 2 1/4" width x 7/8" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Tablet with two small gouged losses near diagonally opposite corners on one face. On the opposite face, a piece has cracked off one corner and is lost. About 2/3 of this face has been abraded (?) and is smooth. There are scattered black spost over all surfaces of the tablet. The tablet may be lightly coated.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic student exercise in drafting administrative documents. The date of this text is given as Rim-Suen, year 20 (c. 1802 BCE).
Box 18

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96281  School text, legal exercise for a loan contract Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/4" height x 1 7/8" width x 3/4" depth, red baked rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: An almost complete tablet; there are losses to three corners. Only one face has been inscribed, the other is smooth. The piece appears relatively well fired. The surface may be coated.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's exercise in writing a contract for a loan of barley.
Box 18

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96282  School text, legal exercise for a loan contract Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 1 7/8" width x 15/16" depth, red rectangular single column tablet with the reverse mostly effaced
Condition: A small, mostly complete tablet. One corner has a superficial loss and the adjacent corner has small chip losses. Tablet appears well fired.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's exercise in writing a contract for an interest-bearing silver loan. The text is signed by the scribe Iri-ku, son of Ahishu.
Box 19

Item: 1 Cotsen ID: 96283a-b  School text, legal exercise for a loan contract Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 3 1/2" height x 1 7/8" width x 15/16" depth, red baked rectangular double column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: The tablet has been broken and repaired. 96283a-b do not form a complete object, the tablet is still missing a portion from one end. Tablet appears well-fired and surface may be coated. There are tool marks on the broken edge indicating that the object may have been broken during excavation. There is a scraped area on one face that may also have occurred during excavation.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's exercise in writing a contract for a silver loan. The text is signed by the scribe Suen-nawir.
Box 19

Item: 2 Cotsen ID: 96284  School text pre-Ur III

Physical Description: 1 7/8" height x 3 1/2" width x 15/16" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet fragment with losses to two of the corners. There are surface losses extending from one of the corner losses. The surface at these losses is uneven and jagged and there is some spalling. There are other minor surface losses and incomplete cracks overall.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

The contents of this student exercise are unclear.
Box 19

Item: 3 Cotsen ID: 96286a-b  School text, administrative exercise of temple offerings Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Physical Description: 7" height x 3 1/8" width x 1" depth, large rectangular double column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: The tablet is complete but one corner has been broken and reattached. The repair is poor; the two fragments are not properly matched. The clay of this tablet is unusually light in color but may be the result of firing conditions. There is a small loss to one of the corners adjacent to the repair and a smaller loss on the other adjacent corner. There are encrustations on both faces.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise allowed the scribe to practice writing the lists of morning and evening provisions for Ninlil's second shrine. This text is a duplicate of 96287.
Box 19

Item: 4 Cotsen ID: 96287a-b  School text, mathematical exercise Ur III Period (c. 2100-2000 BCE)

Physical Description: 6 1/4" height x 3 1/4" width x 1" depth, large rectangular double column tablet joined from fragments
Condition: Tablet has been broken in two pieces repaired. Clay appears well fired. Adhesive is contained within damaged area. Surface is not coated. There appears to be mineral deposits (salts ?) vertically along one side. (Some adhesive may have darkened an area of the deposits).
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This basic student exercise allowed the scribe to practice writing the lists of morning and evening provisions for Ninlil's second shrine. This text is a duplicate of 96286.
Box 19

Item: 5 Cotsen ID: 96504  School text, mathematical exercise of metrology Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 5 1/2" height x 2 3/8" width x 5/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse effaced
Condition: Rectangular tablet with losses to an entire face. One face is uneven and rough from crater-like losses and spalling. There are two chips near one corner on this face that may have broken off and been reattached. There is a loss at one corner and three pit-like losses on the inscribed face. There are other minor losses overall. There are white concretions, possibly soluble salts, visible overall, primarily on the uninscribed face with all of the losses. The tablet is actively crumbling.
Language of Material: unclear

Scope and Content Note

This text is a student practice problem for equivalencies between units of length.
Box 19

Item: 6 Cotsen ID: 96285  School text, cylinder seal exercise Old Babylonian - Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

1. “Princess”,

2. Daughter of Zali
Physical Description: 1 13/16" H x 1 1/4" W x 1/2" depth, sealed rectangular single column tablet
Condition: Rectangular tablet of grey-tan clay. There are significant losses to at one corner. There are mineral deposits on the surface of this loss, possibly salts (?) On this same face, there are two deep grooves that were created with an implement. It is possible these were made while the clay was still wet. Alternatively, these could have been made with a modern tool. There are some incomplete cracks, other minor surface losses, a nd a few white concretions overall. The raised portions of the surface have a slight sheen -- this sheen is possibly the result of handling and wear or from a coating.
Language of Material: Akkadian

Scope and Content Note

This tablet contains a student's practice rolling a cylinder seal onto the tablet face. The sealing reads, "Rubatum ('Princess'), daugher of Zali". Most administrative and legal documents required sealings.
Box 19

Item: 7 Cotsen ID: 96505.1a-d  Administrative text for the sale of land Early Dynastic III (c. 2600-2350 BCE)

Translation:

Obverse

Column 1

1. 10 iku, …,

2. 2 1/2 iku, the field of …;

3. 1 iku, the 'brick of the steppe country';

4. 1 iku, the field of the 'houses of the dog';

5. 1 iku, the field of the buru bird mound;

Column 2

1. Ur-kusu

2. metal

3. he exchanged;

4. Kur-dadu

5. was its administrator;

6. 'Mother of the shrine';

7. …

8. …

Column 3

1. 'Servant of Gibil';

2. …

3. 'House of going';

4. 'Little pig',

5. a servant of Shara;

6. 'King of the festival',

7. the potter;

8. …

9. …

Column 4

1. …

2. …

3. …

4. 'Servant of Gibil'

5. was its scribe;

6. (aforementioned names) were witnesses.

Reverse

Column 1

1. … 2 shekels of silver

2. 2 bronze

3. 2 shekels is its silver

4. 1 pretty thing

5. 1 …

6. The accounting official 'Going' was its scribe.
Physical Description: 3" height x 3 5/16" width x 1" depth, square multi-column tablet
Condition: Rectangular cuneiform tablet that has split approximately in half resulting in one face being almost completely separated. The face was reattached with adhesive - one edge of the face has adhesive over the surface. In one corner of the area covered by adhesive, there is a small base piece of the tablet that may have become detached but was readhered. The diagonally opposite corner of the reattached face has a deep loss that is covered with adhesive. The face was not reattached well - there is a wide seam between the 2 rejoined pieces. The partially inscribed face has a patch of adhesive at one edge. There is a deposit on the surface within the deposit lower down.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This early administrative document records lists of individuals, probably workers for the state.
Box 19

Item: 8 Cotsen ID: 96505.2a-b  School text, literary exercise from Iddin-Dagan B Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Translation:

1. Iddin-Dagan,

2. in princeship

3. you have raised the neck to heaven.
Physical Description: 3 1/8" diameter x 1 1/16" depth, lentil joined from fragments
Condition: Lenticular tablet with one piece on the edge broken and rattached. The repair was not expertly done, as there is a wide seam between the reattached pieces. Only one face of the tablet is inscribed. There is a gouge at the edge of the inscribed face near one end of the reattached break. The gouge appears to be from a modern tool, as it does not have the same patina as the rest of the tablet. There is a large compressed area on this face, close to the reattached break. This may be an impression (of a thumb?) from when the clay was still wet. There is a a small hole in the face near one edge of the compression. A white circular sticker inscribed "203 [underlined]" was affixed near the edge; the sticker has been removed. The plain face of the tablet has a large gouged loss along the seam of the reattached break. The loss is covered with adhesive. Two thin cracks run from the break to the edge of the tablet. There is a small hole near the center of the tablet. About 1/3 of this face near an edge is comressed flat- this probably occurred while the clay was still wet.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This advanced student exercise is from a praise poem of Iddin-Dagan (version B), who was king under the First Dynasty of Isin, from 1974-1954 BCE. This excerpt includes the final line (79).
Box 19

Item: 9 Cotsen ID: 96505.3  School text, lexical exercise of wooden objects Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 11/16" height x 2" width x 7/8" depth, rectangular single column tablet with the reverse uninscribed
Condition: Rectangular tablet inscribed on one face only. One corner of the inscribed face has been pushed inward; it appears that this compression took place while the clay was still wet. The uninscribed face has a long, diagonal gash near center, apparently the result of a modern tool strike. There is a chipped loss at the corner of the face near one end of this gash. A white circular sticker with "92." written in black ink was affixed to one short side of the tablet; the sticker has been removed.
Language of Material: Sumerian

Scope and Content Note

This is a basic vocabulary exercise in writing various types of wooden objects.
Box 19

Item: 10 Cotsen ID: 96505.4  School text, literary exercise Old Babylonian Period (c. 1900-1600 BCE)

Physical Description: 2 11/16" height x 2" width x 7/8" depth, fragment
Condition: Cuneiform tablet fragment with uneven breaks and losses around all edges. One long side of the fragment has deep cracks that may need to be stabilized. One face has a small but deep hole near one edge. The tablet has a large and deep loss below that hole- part of the fragment that remains intact in that area may be the remains of an envelop. The opposite face has areas of spallng at both short edges and a small area of spalling at one long edge. A white circular sticker with "94." written in ink was affixed to one broken short side; the sticker has been removed.
Language of Material: Sumerian