Scope and Content
Title: Johnson County War Collection
Collection Number: mssJohnsonCountyWar
Carey, Jena, collector
The Huntington Library,
Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. Manuscripts
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2191
Abstract: The collection consists of primary and
secondary source material on the Johnson County War of 1892, focusing on and around
the town of Buffalo, Wyoming. It includes manuscripts related to the Johnson County invasion,
alleged cattle rustling, the death of George Wellman and case against Thomas
Hathaway, the 1892 fire at Fort McKinney, and various financial and social issues
facing Johnson County in the 1890s. The original material includes correspondence,
legal papers, Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency reports, newspaper clippings,
and some photographs. The secondary material consists of essays, articles, and
ephemera relating to Wyoming history.
Language of Material: The records are in English.
Open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information, contact Reader
The Huntington Library does not require that researchers request permission to quote from or publish images of this material,
nor does it charge fees for such activities.
The responsibility for identifying the copyright holder, if there is one, and obtaining necessary permissions rests with the
[Identification of item], Johnson County War collection, The Huntington Library,
San Marino, California.
The collection was a gift of James E. McCormick III on December 31, 2012.
The Johnson County War, also known as the Wyoming Range War, centered on Johnson,
Natrona, and Converse Counties, Wyoming, in April and May 1892. The dispute was the
result of tensions between the interests of big cattlemen and small ranchers, many
of whom were accused of being cattle rustlers. Most of the counties’ largest cattle
outfits, and most prominent and wealthiest individuals, belonged to the Wyoming
Stock Growers Association (WSGA).
Harsh weather conditions and lack of good grazing
land led to intensified cattle competition in the late 1880s, and agents of the
WSGA, including former Johnson County sheriff Frank M. Canton, attempted to prevent
alleged cattle rustling by some small-scale ranchers, occasionally relying on
violent means. The 1889 lynching of Ella Watson and Jim Averell, along with the
killings of several other supposed rustlers in 1891, divided public opinion. Some
small ranchers in Johnson County, including local settler Nate Champion, formed the
Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers’ Association (NWFSGA) to attempt to
compete with the WSGA. Members of the NWFSGA and other small ranchers were
"blacklisted" by the WSGA, who ordered them to stop all cattle operations. The
NWFSGA refused and instead planned a cattle roundup for spring 1892. Led by former
U.S. Marshal Frank Wolcott, the WSGA formed a band of hired gunmen with the
intention of threatening or eliminating members of the NWFSGA before their roundup.
In addition to Canton and three other WSGA detectives, the group also included a
number of prominent Wyoming citizens, including State Senator Bob Tisdale, water
commissioner W.J. Clarke, politicians William C. Irvine and Hubert Teshemacher,
surgeon Dr. Charles Penrose, and newspaper reporters from the Cheyenne Sun and
Chicago Herald. The group assembled at Cheyenne and traveled by train to Casper
before riding toward Douglas on horseback, cutting telegraph lines as they went to
avoid detection. Although the party’s original destination appears to have been
Buffalo, they were sidetracked by a trip to Nate Champion’s KC Ranch, where they
arrived on April 8, 1892. The so-called invaders laid siege to Champion’s cabin and
eventually killed both Champion and Nick Ray. Local rancher Jack Flagg, avoiding
capture by the invaders, rode to Buffalo and alerted sheriff William “Red” Angus and
the rest of the town to the events at the KC Ranch. A posse of 200 armed citizens
rode for the KC Ranch on April 10, although the invaders had already left and begun
riding toward Buffalo. The two groups met at the TA Ranch on Crazy Woman Creek,
where the WSGA invaders were besieged by the sheriff’s posse. Three of the invaders
were killed but one escaped and cabled the acting Governor of Wyoming, Amos W.
Barber, who telegraphed President Harrison asking for assistance for the WSGA on
April 12. Under Harrison’s orders, the 6th Cavalry from nearby Fort McKinney was
sent to the TA Ranch, where the invaders surrendered on April 13. Most of the WSGA
group was taken prisoner to Fort D.A. Russell in Cheyenne, although many Buffalo
citizens mistakenly thought they were being held at Fort McKinney. Although Johnson
County prosecutors gathered evidence and intended to file a number of indictments
against those involved in the invasion, most of the invaders were released on bail
and many disappeared to Texas. After a series of legal entanglements, all of the
charges against the WSGA members were eventually dropped. Tensions remained high,
and the 6th Cavalry was replaced by the 9th Cavalry, one member of which was killed
in a shootout with local citizens. Citizens of Wyoming remained divided on the
issue, some siding with the large cattlemen who they saw as defending their rights
against thefts by rustlers, while others sided with the small ranchers, who they
believed to be falsely persecuted and attacked by overzealous vigilantes.
Scope and Content
The collection consists of primary and secondary source material on the Johnson
County War of 1892, focusing on and around the town of Buffalo, Wyoming. It includes
manuscripts related to the Johnson County invasion, alleged cattle rustling, the
death of George Wellman and the case against Thomas Hathaway, the 1892 fire at Fort
McKinney, and various financial and social issues facing Johnson County in the
1890s. The original material includes correspondence, legal papers, Pinkerton’s
National Detective Agency reports, newspaper clippings, and some photographs. The
secondary material consists of essays, articles, and ephemera relating to Wyoming
Charles H. Burritt Correspondence
Box 1 contains the correspondence of Charles H. Burritt, including 47 letters to
Fred G.S. Hesse dated January 1892 to February 1893; 6 letters to attorneys John
Lacey and Willis Van Devanter dated June 1892; 11 letters to Van Devanter dated July
1892; 2 letters to W.R. Stoll (1892); and a 79-page typescript of letters to various
correspondents including C.N. Potter, H.R. Mann, M.C. Brown, J.W. Blake, S.M. Allen,
and Henry B. Blair (1892). The letters focus on the Johnson County invasion and
subsequent trial; the fire and alleged theft of weapons by rustlers at Fort
McKinney; the death of George Wellman and the investigation of Thomas Hathaway; the
financial situation in Buffalo; the elections of 1892; and various criminal trials,
including those for cattle theft. Some of the letters are facsimiles (see the
container list for more information).
Some notable items include:
- A letter to Hesse mentioning the illness of Frank M. Canton’s wife and
the death of his daughter (1892, Jan.26).
- Photocopies of letters to Hesse describing the boycott of Burritt’s
businesses and his fear of assassination (1892, May).
- A letter describing the upcoming trial of Frank Canton and other Johnson
County defendants, including an “attempt made to avoid the provisions of the
constitution of the State of Wyoming” in illegally calling in debts and a
certificate of indebtedness for $12,000.00 that was to be transferred to
Robert Foote “as security for expenses incurred in the case” as soon as “it
shall be decided what Co. the case of the State against Canton and the
others is to be tried in” (1892, July 18)
- A letter describing the trial of Robert C. Dalton and Moise Ganyon, who
were accused of killing a T.A. Ranch steer. Burritt writes that “I never
wanted to go into the trial of a case so badly in my life,” but as an
election was approached he was advised to “stay in the background and
instruct the officers…as to what they should do…In the circle of parties
where the knowledge as to the real author of the case will do the most good,
the facts are sufficiently known.” He writes that the “plan worked better
than I anticipated” because of the “bungling” of the prosecution and the
defense, and that “it made [Sheriff William “Red”] Angus so mad to see the
poor work that [Johnson County attorney Alvin] Bennett was doing” that he
vowed to work against him in the next election. “I have had hard work to
keep Angus in line,” concludes Burritt, “and I believe that the money I have
expended in this case has been well spent” (1892, Nov.2).
- A letter to Hesse in which Burritt laments his circumstances, wondering
“what I shall do to be saved.” He writes that he can no longer live in
Buffalo “unless there is a change,” and that the “blasted jury are now going
in the opposite extreme – are convicting everyone whether there is evidence
or not.” The recent elections had caused Burritt to be appointed as a
criminal defense attorney, which he said he would not do except in the case
of “a soldier for shooting a nigger Barney” and Ira E. Walker for killing
the desperado Hank Lovett (1892, Nov.17).
- A letter to Hesse in which Burritt records that he has almost “gone
broke,” and that “it is enough to break a man’s heart to see the places of
so many good men filled by the ‘scum of the Earth’ and pure ‘dead-beats’
after the election. “We must have a ‘snich’ when we go down after a man for
stealing cattle,” Burritt writes, “a case where the jury are obliged to
convict even against their will” (1892, Dec.22).
- A letter to Hesse in which he describes discussions with John Nolan, who
wished to bring charges against the “stock men” for the “destruction” of the
T.A. Ranch during the Johnson County invasion. Burritt refused to take the
case and hoped that with Hesse “some steps might be taken to prevent the
bringing of this suit.” He warned Hesse to “head Nolan off” as soon as
possible since some in Johnson County were willing to support the suit “for
the purpose of keeping alive the recent troubles in this vicinity” (1893,
- A letter to John Lacey and Willis Van Devanter noting that a mass
meeting did not materialize and that any resolutions supposedly coming from
Johnson County citizens were “Bogus” (1892, June 24).
- A letter to Lacey and Van Devanter noting that indictments had been
brought against Dr. Charles Penrose for first degree murder and against
Frederick W. Coats for burglary with intent to commit a felony, although
“there are no informations against any of the stockmen for arson” (1892,
- A letter to W.R. Stoll reporting that Burritt had been receiving death
threats (1892, Sep.14).
- A series of letters to Willis Van Devanter describing the fire and
alleged weapon theft at Fort McKinney, beginning with Burritt sending
Lieutenant Gray to Fort Russell to report the fire at Fort McKinney (1892,
July 22). Burritt writes of getting a confession from Private Andrew Keiser,
a blacksmith in Troop H, 6th Cavalry, “which implicates a large number of
soldiers and also a large number of citizens” in the alleged theft of
weapons from the Fort (1892, July 23). After visiting Fort McKinney, Burritt
writes “it looks now as if we had unearthed the most diabolical plot that
was ever conceived by mortals,” and that he hoped to convict Robert Foote
and Henry Smith for supposedly engineering a plot to “blow up a building at
Fort McKinney,” and “in that way make away with all the stockmen at once.”
Burritt claims Smith paid Keiser $500 to blow up the Fort’s bath house with
dynamite (1892, July 24). Further investigations into the incident yielded
“disclosures" that “bring out some irregularities also in the Q.M.
Department and place the A.A.G.M. in a rather critical light and
incidentally involves some of our best friends. There is nothing so far
actually criminal but they are very unpleasant irregularities and I am mich
afraid that these things are helping to shield Robert Foote so that we can
not make a case against the old scamp” (1892, July 26).
- A 79-page typescript of letters to W.R. Stoll and others include frequent
references to Burritt’s desire to “start an undercurrent of opposition to
cattle thieves and so far as possible…divert public opinion from the recent
invasion” (1892, May 8).
Box 2 contains general correspondence related to the Johnson County invasion, the
death of George Wellman, the financial situation in Buffalo, and various political
and social events. There are also several threatening notes allegedly sent by cattle
rustlers, as well as 20th century correspondence regarding Wyoming history.
Correspondents include Frank Canton, Joseph M. Carey, Fred G.S. Hesse, Frank A.
Kemp, G.W. Munkres, and O.P. Witt.
Some notable items include:
- 8 letters from Senator Joseph M. Carey to Louis Kirk dated 1892, and
which include questions on the origins of the Johnson County invasion
(“Nobody understands the purpose and object of the Cattlemen…Why did they go
to Buffalo or start there?....What were they trying to do?...How could the
people of Johnson County feel otherwise than they did?...Everybody got
crazy. Such conditions always suit men like Angus and Kimball. They prefer
anarchy to law and order”); the potential implementation of martial law (“I
had made it as plain as I possibly could in my previous letters. The
government of the United States has nothing to do with martial law in the
State…”); and his annoyance that his suggestions were not being carried out
in Wyoming and that he was being blamed for the lack of action (“I
understand…that I receive lots of abuse from [the cattlemen] confined at Ft.
Russell, as if it were in my power to do anything except upon an actual
statement of facts”).
- A letter from W.H. Haynes to Fred G.S. Hesse in which in write of
Buffalo: “I tell you…that this country is in a hell of a fix. A man is not
safe to spit” (May 20, 1892).
- 7 letters from Fred W. Hesse (son of Fred G.S. Hesse) to Jena Carey (widow
of Joseph M. Carey) dated 1965-1967, in which Hesse criticizes the books on
Johnson County written by Marie Sandoz and Helen Huntington Smith, which he
describes as “disgusting to me because I put in so much time trying to get a
little sense into her ignorant idea of what this country was like” (June 1,
- 7 letters from Frank A. Kemp to Fred G.S. Hesse dated 1892. Kemp laments
the lack of action in Buffalo (“I don’t see how the hell we can do anything,
as…the opinion is so strong against violent measures…I don’t see the…use in
declaring martial law, or calling out the troops, without they are willing
to do what the late expedition failed in doing…exterminate the rusters” (May
24, 1892) and the handling of the cattle situation (“we have been fooled by
a lot of politicians…I have been furious at the way in which this cattle
trouble has been handled. The childishness and duplicity displayed by our
great men makes me so mad that I hate to speak, think, or write about it…”
(June 30, 1892).
- Notes from alleged cattle rustlers, including those to William Irvine (“We
will give you 30 days to leave this country and if you don’t we will get
you”) and the “hired girl at Whitcomb’s place” (“You are warned and will not
be notified again…warn them at your peril!”).
- A letter from Frank M. Canton from his father-in-law W.H. Wilkerson, in
which he writes of “the indignities the people that have taken no part in
this affair have been subjected to [for being related to the invaders].
Women have been insulted [and] men have been slapped in the face…” (Apr.17,
- A letter from an unknown correspondent to Frank Canton informing him of
the death of George Wellman and the story of Tom Hathaway (May 10,
Legal Statements and Documents
Box 3 consists of witness statements, legal documents, and other papers related to
events in Johnson County in 1892. Notable items include statements made by Henry E.
Johnson and Andrew Keiser at Fort McKinney regarding their participation in the
alleged dynamite plot (1892); various statements made by invasion participants Ben
Jones and William Walker, including affidavits taken after their arrival in Rhode
Island (1892); statements in the death of George Wellman made by Mary Linville,
William Linville, Austin B. Read, Ed Morse, and W.P. Ricketts, as well as maps and
testimony by Thomas Hathaway; and various witness lists for the prosecution in the
dynamite plot, Wellman murder trial, and cases vs. Robert Foote, John Hill, and
Box 4 contains reports from Pinkerton National Detective Agency field agents sent to
W.R. Stoll between June and November of 1892. All of the reports are signed by
William A. Pinkerton.
The reports include:
- 38 reports from agent M.E. Cox, who posed as a physician in Buffalo while
gathering information on the cattle invasion. Cox noted that “my bearing
served as a guarantee of friendship to rustlers,” while his position as a
physician made him privy to a variety of personal information on the private
lives of Buffalo’s citizens. He reports on public opinion (including a great
deal of information gleaned from local prostitutes), summarizes newspaper
reports, reports on a recent railroad survey, and writes of the uneasiness
in Buffalo caused by the presence of U.S. Marshals. Cox also reports from
Portland, Custer, and Sheridan, Wyoming.
- 5 reports from agent J.C. Frazer, who gathered information on various
individuals and proceedings regarding Johnson County in Denver, Las Vegas,
and Clayton, New Mexico.
- 51 reports from agent T.H. Hale, a deputy U.S. Marshal working in Buffalo
and Suggs, Wyoming. Hale reports on getting acquainted with alleged rustlers
at roundups, staking out John A. Tisdale’s ranch for “armed men,” and
tracking outlaws Frank Smith, Charles Taylor, and Ed Starr (who were
suspects in the murder of Marshal George Wellman), including a near shootout
with Long and Starr and the capture of their accomplice Jack Long, who
escaped from jail a few days later (July 23, 1892). Hale writes that despite
such setbacks the Marshals would “devise some means of getting at the men we
want,” and to “try and not get murdered” in the process.
Notes, Essays, and Miscellaneous Manuscripts
Box 5 contains miscellaneous notes and essays on Fred G.S. Hesse, John A. Tisdale,
the Fetterman Massacre, Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, Hole-in-the-Wall, and
general Wyoming history; a bound copy of Asa Mercer’s “The Banditti of the Plains”
(1894); a resolution in the Wyoming Derrick Extra (May 3, 1892) by the people of
Natrona County condemning the invasion of Johnson County and calling Governor Amos
W. Barber’s apparent knowledge of the act “treasonous;” a photograph of Fred W.
Hesse at a rodeo in Buffalo (1913) and a reproduction of a photograph of the T.A.
Ranch; and various research notes, ephemera, and photographs of “Uncle Jim” and
Johnson County in a binder belonging to Jena Carey, among other items.
Publications and Printed Ephemera
Box 6 contains copies of various Western history and news magazines (c.1960s-1970s),
14 copies of The Westerners Brand Book (1948-1952), pamphlets by Herbert O. Brayer
and Charles B. Penrose, and various other pamphlets related to Wyoming travel and
Newspapers and Newspaper Clippings
Box 7 contains newspapers and newspaper clippings on Johnson County history, and
primarily date from the 1940s-1960s. Included is a 1960s series of articles on 1890s
Buffalo from the Buffalo Bulletin.
Photocopies of Articles
Box 8 contains photocopies of essays and articles on Johnson County and Wyoming
history by Herbert O. Brayer, J. Elmer Brock, Frank Canton, Arthur Chapman, Jack
Flagg, and others. Subjects include the death of George Wellman, the Johnson County
war, and cattleman Moreton Frewen.
Box 9 contains cassette and reel to reel tapes recordings of interviews with Garvin
Taylor, Fred Hesse, Bill Brock, Kay Hibdon, and J.L. Night. These items may be
inaccessible. Please contact the appropriate curator.
The collection includes one oversize roll containing photostats of the Cheyenne
Weekly Sun from 1892.
The collection consists of nine boxes and one set of rolled photostats.
The collection is organized in the following series:
Statements and Legal Papers
Publications and Printed Ephemera
The correspondence is arranged alphabetically by author, and then
chronologically. Other manuscripts are arranged alphabetically or
chronologically as appropriate.
Carey, Joseph M.
(Joseph Maull), 1845-1924.
Hesse, Fred George S.,
Mercer, Asa S. (Asa
Van Devanter, Willis,
Johnson County War, 1892.
Manners and customs--Wyoming.