Scope and Content
Title: Horatio N. Rust Photograph Collection
Dates (inclusive): 1850-1905
Collection Number: photCL 7-11
Rust, Horatio N. (Horatio Nelson), 1828-1906
766 photographs and ephemera in 14 boxes
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens.
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2129
Abstract: A collection of photographs compiled by Horatio N. Rust (1828-1906), U.S. Indian agent and archaeological artifact collector.
The main focus of the collection is Indians of Southern California and the
Southwest in the late 19th century, including a set of photographs of Southwest Pueblos by John K. Hillers. There is also
a collection of photographs related to abolitionist John Brown and his descendants living in the West.
Finding aid last updated on April 1, 2014.
The collection is open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information,
please visit the Huntington's website:
Boxes 4-7 of photCL 11 contain lantern slides, which are fragile and housed separately from the prints. Advance arrangements
for viewing the lantern slides must be made with the Curator of Photographs.
All requests for permission to publish photographs must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Photographs. Permission
for publication is given on behalf of the Huntington as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or
imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.
Horatio N. Rust Photograph Collection. Huntington Library. Photo Archives.
Gift of Nellie Rust Lockwood and her brother, Edward H. Rust (children of Horatio N. Rust.), 1943.
A few items in the John Brown Collection (photCL 9) were acquired from other sources and transferred to this collection at
various times. Those sources are: Eleanor Billingsley, 1924; Max Farrand, 1934; Fred Lockley, unknown date;
William H. Murray, 1916; Mrs. Edward Simmons, 1948. Specific acquisition information is noted at the item level in the contents
list of this finding aid.
At some point after acquisition, the collection was subdivided into five groups and each was given an individual call number
(photCL 7 -11).
The 120 lantern slides had not been placed with any of these groups and remained uncataloged. In 2013, they were re-housed,
numbered, and integrated into photCL 11.
Horatio Nelson Rust (1828-1906) was a U.S. Indian agent, collector of archeological artifacts, horticulturist, and a Pasadena,
California resident and booster. Born in Massachusetts, he became a friend and supporter of abolitionist John Brown (1800-1859),
leader of the Harper's Ferry raid. He served as a medical volunteer in the Civil War and afterward helped raise funds for
freed Black emigrants to Kansas. His lifelong interest in archaeology led to his exploration of North American Indian antiquities
and culture, and he served as federal agent for the Indians of the Mission-Tule River Consolidated Agency in California from
1889 to 1893. His jurisdiction included 22 reservations, most of them in San Bernardino County. He advocated for Indian rights,
sometimes stirring controversy, and helped establish an Indian school at Perris, Calif. In 1881, at the age of 53, Rust moved
his family to Pasadena, where he became active in community affairs. Rust helped found Pasadena’s first public library, and
he established a nursery that he and his family ran for sixty years. Rust died in 1906 at the age of 78.
Related materials in the Huntington Library
Scope and Content
A collection of photographs compiled by Horatio N. Rust (1828-1906), U.S. Indian agent and archaeological artifact collector.
The main focus of the collection is Indians of Southern California and the Southwest in the late 19th century, including a
set of photographs of Southwest Pueblos by John K. Hillers. There is also a collection of photographs related to abolitionist
John Brown and his descendants living in the West.
The collection has been divided into five groups:
(photCL 7) Album of Indians of Southern California and the Southwest, approximately 1886-1905.
A photograph album compiled by Rust, documenting Indians living in Southern California, Arizona and New Mexico, approximately
1886-1905. Includes group portraits of Indian school students in California; members of the Cahuilla, Luiseno, Morongo, Mojave,
Hopi, and Navajo tribes; the Indian Council at Pala, 1886; and scenes in Pechanga, Soboba and other native communities of
(photCL 8) Trip to Arizona, 1895
Photographs made mostly by A. C. Vroman during Rust’s 1895 trip from Southern California to Arizona to see the Hopi Snake
Dance at Walpi. Rust was accompanied by Mrs. Thaddeus (Leontine) Lowe, Vroman, and Charles J. Crandall. Views include Hopi
and Navajo Indians and scenes of pueblo life; the Snake Dance at Walpi; the Grand Canyon; the Petrified Forest; desert landscapes;
a group portrait of Mojave Indians at Needles, California; and several views of Rust and his fellow travelers with guides,
wagons and supplies.
(photCL 9) John Brown Collection, approximately 1850-1897.
Photographs, prints and ephemera pertaining to abolitionist John Brown and his family. Includes portraits of Brown, his family
members, supporters and other abolitionists; participants in the raid on Harper’s Ferry and officials involved in Brown’s
trial; views of Harper’s Ferry and buildings related to the raid; and views of Brown’s grave and home in New York. There
are also several views of Jason and Owen Brown’s Las Casitas homestead in the mountains near Pasadena, California, and a scene
of mourners gathered at Owen Brown’s grave. A few additional items in the collection were acquired from other sources and
transferred to the collection at various times.
(photCL 10) U.S. Bureau of Ethnology Expedition Photographs of Southwest Pueblos by John K. Hillers, approximately 1879-1881.
Views of pueblo villages and surrounding landscape; some show people and details such as pottery, ovens, and food and water
(photCL 11) Photographs and Lantern Slides of Artifacts and Indians of California, Southwest and Great Plains, approximately
Views of artifacts, some of which were excavated by Rust himself, as he describes in captions; Indians from Great Plains and
western tribes; Indian schools in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, and Perris, California; Southern California Indians. The lantern slides
are mostly copies of photographs elsewhere in the Rust Collection, such as: Southwest Pueblo views by John K. Hillers (photCL
10); Rust’s trip to Arizona, 1895, with A. C. Vroman (photCL 8). Topics of other slides: Southwest Indians by photographer
Frederick H. Maude; San Gabriel Mission; two views of H. N. Rust’s home; Aztec artifacts and ruins.
The collection is arranged by call number as described in the scope content.
Adams, Annie Brown, 1843-1926 -- Photographs.
Anderson, Osborne P. (Osborne Perry), 1830-1872 -- Photographs.
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916, photographer.
Bowlegs, Billy, 1808?-1863 or 1864.
Brackett, Edward Augustus, 1818-1908 -- Photographs.
Brown family -- Photographs.
Brown, Frederick, -- 1830-1856 -- Tomb -- Photographs.
Brown, Jason, 1823-1912 -- Photographs.
Brown, Jeremiah -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Death and burial -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Family -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Friends and associates -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Homes and haunts -- New York (State) -- North Elba (Town) -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Portraits.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Tomb -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1800-1859 -- Trials, litigation, etc. -- Photographs.
Brown, John, 1821-1895 -- Photographs.
Brown, Mary Ann Day, 1816-1884 -- Photographs.
Brown, Oliver, 18339-1859 -- Photographs.
Brown, Owen -- Photographs.
Brown, Owen, 1824-1889 -- Photographs.
Brown, Salmon, 1836-1919 -- Photographs.
Brown, Watson, 1835-1859 -- Photographs.
Carson, Kit, 1809-1868 -- Monuments -- Photographs.
Chilton, Samuel, 1804-1867 -- Photographs.
Cook, John E. (John Edwin), 1830-1859 -- Photographs.
Crandall, C. J., 1855-1935.
Fablinger, Ellen Brown, 1854-1916 -- Photographs.
Forbes, Hugh, active approximately 1848-approximately 1857 -- Photographs.
Fritchie, Barbara, 1766-1862 -- Photographs.
Gill, George B., 1832-1911 -- Photographs.
Hand, Marion Brown -- Photographs.
Henson, Josiah, 1789-1883 -- Photographs.
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920.
Jackson, Helen Hunt, 1830-1885. -- Ramona.
Jeffords, Tom, 1832-1914 -- Photographs.
Joseph, Nez Percé Chief, 1840-1904 -- Photographs.
Kagi, John Henry, 1835-1859 -- Photographs.
Keokuk, Sauk chief, 1780?-1848 -- Photographs.
Lee, Robert E. (Robert Edward), 1807-1870 -- Photographs.
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908 -- Photographs.
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer) -- Photographs.
Miller, Anne Fitzhugh, 1856-1912 -- Photographs.
Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923 -- Photographs.
Newby, Dangerfield -- Photographs.
Parker, Richard, 1810-1893 -- Photographs.
Realf, Richard, 1834-1878 -- Photographs.
Rust, Horatio N. (Horatio Nelson), 1828-1906 -- Photographs.
Tidd, Charles Plummer, 1832-1862 -- Photographs.
Vroman, A. C. (Adam Clark), 1856-1916 -- Photographs.
Williston, Samuel, 1795-1874 -- Photographs.
Wise, Henry A. (Henry Alexander), 1806-1876 -- Photographs.
Mission San Antonio de Pala -- Photographs.
Mission San Gabriel Arcangel (San Gabriel, Calif.) -- Photographs
Mission San Xavier del Bac (Tucson, Ariz.) -- Photographs
Pechanga Band of Mission Indians -- Photographs.
Rancho Camulos (Ventura County, Calif.) -- Photographs
Sherman Institute (Riverside, Calif.) -- History.
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.) -- Photographs.
Abolitionists -- History -- 19th century.
Abolitionists -- United States -- Pictorial works.
Adobe houses -- California -- Photographs.
Arrowheads -- North America -- Photographs.
Artifacts -- Photographs.
Aztec pottery -- Mexico.
Cahuilla Indians -- Photographs.
Cherokee Indians -- Oklahoma -- Tahlequah -- History.
Cheyenne Indians -- Photographs.
Chiricahua Indians -- Cultural assimilation.
Creek Indians -- Oklahoma -- Photographs
Diegueño Indians -- Photographs.
Expeditions & surveys -- West (U.S.) -- 1870-1890 -- Photographs.
Frontier and pioneer life -- California, Southern -- Photographs.
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- Photographs.
Hopi dance -- Arizona -- Walpi -- Photographs.
Hopi Indians -- Photographs.
Human remains (Archaeology) -- Photographs.
Hupa Indians -- Photographs.
Indian basket -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Indian baskets -- California -- Photographs.
Indian baskets -- Photographs.
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Collectors and collecting.
Indians of North America -- California, Southern -- Photographs.
Indians of North America -- Education -- Photographs.
Indians of North America -- Great Plains -- Photographs.
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New -- Photographs.
Luiseño Indians -- California -- Pala -- Photographs.
Mohave Indians -- Photographs.
Navajo Indians -- Jewelry -- Photographs.
Navajo Indians -- Photographs.
Off-reservation boarding schools -- California -- Riverside -- Photographs.
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs.
Perris Indian School -- Photographs.
Photographers -- 1890-1900.
Pueblo dance -- Photographs.
Pueblo pottery -- Photographs.
Pueblos -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Pueblos -- New Mexico -- Photographs.
Sauk Indians -- Photographs.
Seminole Indians -- Photographs.
Snake dance -- Arizona -- 1890-1900 -- Photographs.
Tombs & sepulchral monuments -- Photographs.
Travel -- 1880-1900 -- Photographs.
Travelers -- West (U.S.) -- 19th century -- Photographs.
Ute Indians -- Colorado -- Photographs.
Women travelers -- United States -- History -- 19th century -- Photographs.
Yuma Indians -- Photographs.
Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California -- Photographs.
Altadena (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Arizona -- Photographs.
California, Southern -- Photographs.
Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, California.
Charles Town (W. Va.) -- Photographs.
Deerfield (Mass.) -- History -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.
First Mesa (Ariz. : Mesa) -- Photographs.
Grand Canyon (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Hano (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Harpers Ferry (W. Va.) -- History -- John Brown's Raid, 1859 -- Pictorial works.
Harpers Ferry (W. Va.) -- Photographs.
Keams Canyon (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Mojave Desert -- Photographs.
Nambe Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
New Mexico -- Photographs.
North Elba (N.Y. : Town) -- Photographs.
Oraibi (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Pala (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation, California -- Photographs
Pasadena (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Perris (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Petrified Forest National Park (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico -- Photographs.
Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico -- Photographs.
Riverside County (Calif.) -- Photographs.
San Diego County (Calif.) -- Photographs.
San Gabriel Mountains (Calif.) -- Photographs.
San Ildefonso Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
San Pedro (Los Angeles, Calif.) -- Photographs.
Sandia Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
Santo Domingo Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
Second Mesa (Ariz. : Mesa) -- Photographs.
Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, California -- Photographs.
Tahlequah (Okla.) -- Photographs.
Taos Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
Temecula (Calif.) -- Photographs.
Tesuque Pueblo (N.M.) -- Photographs.
Third Mesa (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Walpi (Ariz.) -- Photographs.
Warner's Ranch (Calif.) -- Photographs.
West (U.S.) -- Discovery and exploration.
Zuni (N.M.) -- Photographs.
Cartes-de-visite (card photographs)
Letters (correspondence) -- 19th century.
Baldwin, G. W. (George W.), photographer.
Billingsley, Eleanor, seller.
Bufford, John Henry, 1810-1870, lithographer.
Crandall, C. J., 1855-1935, photographer.
Dodge, John W. (John Wood), 1807-1893, artist.
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm), publisher.
Eldridge, James W. (James William), 1841-1909, former owner.
F. H. Rogers & Co., photographer.
Farrand, Max, 1869-1945, donor.
Gentile & Co., photographer.
Grabill, John C. H., photographer.
Hall, Charles Bryan, 1840- engraver.
Handy, Levin C. (Levin Corbin), 1855-1932, photographer.
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925, photographer.
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920.
Lockley, Fred, 1871-1958, donor.
Lockwood, Nellie Rust, donor.
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer), photographer.
Murray, William H., seller.
Rust, Edward H., donor.
Simmons, Edward, Mrs., donor.
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of Ethnology.
Stoddard, Seneca Ray, 1844-1917, photographer.
Taber, I. W. (Isaiah West), 1830-1912, photographer.
Vroman, A. C. (Adam Clark), 1856-1916, photographer.
Warren, G. K. (George Kendall), -1884, photographer.