Guide to Karen Leonard's Punjabi-Mexican American papers M1808

Finding aid prepared by Everardo Rodriguez
Dept. of Special Collections & University Archives
Stanford University Libraries.
557 Escondido Mall
Stanford, California, 94305
Repository email: speccollref@stanford.edu
2012-5-2


Title: Karen Leonard's Punjabi-Mexican American papers
Identifier/Call Number: M1808
Contributing Institution: Dept. of Special Collections & University Archives
Language of Material: English
Physical Description: 7.5 Linear feet (14 manuscript boxes, 1 flat box)
Date (inclusive): 1900-1990
Abstract: Included in this collection are 5 linear feet of research materials that include county records of marriage, birth and death certificates, documentation on civil cases, articles and photographs, correspondence, as well as other vital statistics and genealogical information related to the Punjabi Mexican Americans in California.

Scope and Contents

The Punjabi Mexican American collection consists of Karen Leonard's research materials, which were the basis for her book MAKING ETHNIC CHOICES; CALIFORNIA'S PUNJABI MEXICAN AMERICANS (1992), as well as for the PBS documentary ROOTS IN THE SAND (1998).
Karen B. Leonard is Professor of Anthropology and Asian American Studies at the University of California, Irvine. Her interests in the Asian American community let to the research she conducted on the intercultural relations that developed between immigrant Punjabi men and women of Mexican descent during the early 1900s. Through her research, Prof. Leonard was able to conduct interviews and gather vital statistics to recreate the many aspects of survival, politics, class, language and religion that these two groups experienced.

Karen Leonard's Punjabi Mexican American papers

In the early twentieth century, men from India's Punjab province came to California to work on the land. The new immigrants had few chances to marry. There were very few marriageable Indian women available in California, and miscegenation laws and racial prejudice limited their ability to find white Americans. Discovering an unexpected compatibility, Punjabis married women of Mexican descent and these alliances inspired others as the men introduced their bachelor relatives and friends to the sisters and friends of their wives. These biracial families developed an identity as "Hindus" but also as Americans within intricate religious contexts.
This collection documents the sociocultural interactions between Punjabi men and women of Mexican descent that took place during the early 1900s. This collection also documents some aspects of the agricultural history of California from north of Sacramento to the southern part of the state.

Access to Collection

The materials are open for research use. Audio-visual materials are not available in original format, and must be reformatted to a digital use copy.

Publication Rights

All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the Head of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, California 94304-6064. Consent is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission from the copyright owner. Such permission must be obtained from the copyright owner, heir(s) or assigns. See: http://library.stanford.edu/depts/spc/pubserv/permissions.html.
Restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

Preferred Citation

[identification of item], Karen Leonard's Punjabi-Mexican American papers (M1808). Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, Calif.

Acquisition Information

This collection was a gift from Karen Leonard to Stanford University, Special Collections in February, 2011.

Subjects and Indexing Terms

Leonard, Karen

Box 1, Folder 1

Pending Butte Co.

Box 1, Folder 2

Library

Box 1, Folder 3

Phone Book Summaries

Box 1, Folder 4

Lists Various (to Ted Sibia)

Box 1, Folder 5

State Wide Vital Stat. Summaries (Includes "minor" counties: L.A., Riverside, Orenge)

Box 1, Folder 6

Imperial Co. Multiple Marriages

Box 1, Folder 7

Sutter Co. Vital Stats.

Box 1, Folder 8

Fresno & Tulare

Box 1, Folder 9

Yuba Co. Vital Stats.

Box 1, Folder 10

Correspondence w miscellaneous (non-Hindus)

Box 1, Folder 11

Imperial Co. Death Certificates

Box 1, Folder 12

Sacramento City Vital Stats.

Box 1, Folder 13

Imperial Valley College

Box 1, Folder 14

"Ethnic Choices" Bibliography

Box 1, Folder 15

Naturalization

Box 1, Folder 16

Civil & Criminal lawsuits

Box 1, Folder 17

Tables & Photos & appendices

Box 1, Folder 18

Banks Imperial Valley

Box 1, Folder 19

Informants list

Box 2, Folder 1

Resources & papers Netw. SSHA

Box 2, Folder 2

Japanese

Box 2, Folder 3

Early Urban Indians

Box 2, Folder 4

Non-Sikhs - E. Indians

Box 2, Folder 5

Register of Sikhs

Box 2, Folder 6

Names / Naming patterns

Box 2, Folder 7

Baptism etc. Catholic records

Box 2, Folder 8

Questionaire / Questions

Box 2, Folder 9

HSTS - unfinished

Box 2, Folder 10

Imperial Co. Births Certif.

Box 2, Folder 11

Imp. Co. Marr. Certif.

Box 2, Folder 12

Notes from Pop. Census 1910-1920

Box 2, Folder 13

Probate Lists, notes

Box 2, Folder 14

Family / Group Numbers Imperial Valley

Box 2, Folder 15

Yuba / Sutter 21-->

Box 2, Folder 16

Fresno 31-->

Box 2, Folder 17

San Joaquin Co. Vital Stat 71-->

Box 2, Folder 18

Sacramento 81-->

Box 3, Folder 1

Informants / Book Publicity

Box 3, Folder 2

Bits

Box 3, Folder 3

Selected "Bits"

Box 3, Folder 4

Sources of Info.

Box 3, Folder 5

Genealogy and Families

Box 3, Folder 6

Multibreed Reunion

Box 3, Folder 7

IV Directories

Box 3, Folder 8

Stories about the men

Box 3, Folder 9

Sandhu, Pritam

Box 3, Folder 10

Ernesto Vargas + Budget Justification

Box 3, Folder 11

Legal Cases + Land contracts Leasing

Box 3, Folder 12

Sikh temple - El Centro + Yuba City

Box 3, Folder 13

Lists of "Hindus" + Miscellaneous

Box 3, Folder 14

Divorces + Multiple Marriages

Box 3, Folder 15

Recent Political Events

Box 3, Folder 16

Intermarriage Data Article

Box 3, Folder 17

Bankruptcies

Box 3, Folder 18

Recent deaths etc.

Box 3, Folder 19

Old Master Lists

Box 4, Folder 1

Articles /Cases on Alien Land Laws

Box 4, Folder 2

Various Text + Articles on Mexicans in California

Box 4, Folder 3

Correspondence with Descendants

Box 4, Folder 4

Correspondence with Descendants continued

Box 4, Folder 5

To be put in families files

Box 4, Folder 6

Mail Requests County Recorders

Box 4, Folder 7

Birth and Death Certificates

Box 4, Folder 8

Marriage Certificates

Box 5, Folder 1

California Farmworkers Articles

Box 5, Folder 2

Articles on Hindus & Sikhs

Box 5, Folder 3

The Japanese Immigrant Community in Mexico - Thesis by Watanabe, Chizuko

Box 5, Folder 4

Death Ceritficates (Yuba City)

Box 5, Folder 5

Marriage Certificates

Box 5, Folder 6

Vatious Titles: (4 booklets about Law, Anthropology, Drama, and Historical Landmarks)

Box 6, Folder 1

Questions

Box 6, Folder 2

Higgs, R. (Agricultural History)

Box 6, Folder 3

Mexican Americans Articles

Box 6, Folder 4

Sikhs Articles

Box 6, Folder 5

Orientals on the American Pacific Coast

Box 6, Folder 6

Misrow, Jogesh

Box 6, Folder 7

Moore, J. in Daniels

Box 6, Folder 8

Mukeiji D.

Box 6, Folder 9

Murarka, Ramesh

Box 6, Folder 10

Ichioka, Y. - Japanese Women in USA & African Sikhs

Box 6, Folder 11

Jacoby, H. (East Indians in the USA)

Box 6, Folder 12

Canada Minorities Asian

Box 6, Folder 13

Kitano, H. L. (Model Minorities)

Box 6, Folder 14

Mansukhani, G. The Sikhs Today

Box 6, Folder 15

Maskiell, M. (Women and Rural Work in Punjab)

Box 6, Folder 16

Maxson (Citizenship)

Box 6, Folder 17

Nutini, H. & Bell, B. (Compadrazgo)

Box 6, Folder 18

Nash, Gerald

Box 6, Folder 19

Narayanan, R. (India League of America)

Box 6, Folder 20

Nutini, H. & Carrasco, P. (Mex. Kinship)

Box 6, Folder 21

Padhana Village - K. Leonard Visit

Box 6, Folder 22

Penalosa, F. (Mexican Family Role)

Box 6, Folder 23

Panunzio, Constantine (Intermarriage in L.A.)

Box 7, Folder 1

Briggs, V. and other Bs to end (photocopied articles)

Box 7, Folder 2

California and the Oriental, other Health, Legisl. State, etc.

Box 7, Folder 3

Bagai, Leona and Other Bs (photocopied articles of Orientals in California)

Box 7, Folder 4

Cotton - A Love Story Across Cultures - Elliot

Box 7, Folder 5

Fernandez, B. and all Fs (photocopied articles)

Box 7, Folder 6

Samras, Kharaiti Ram

Box 7, Folder 7

Photocopied articles (1 of 3)

Box 7, Folder 8

Photocopied articles (2 of 3)

Box 7, Folder 9

Photocopied articles (3 of 3)

Box 7, Folder 10

Miscellaneous articles

Box 7, Folder 11

Reed

Box 7, Folder 12

Rosenthal - Urey

Box 7, Folder 13

Rowley, H.

Box 7, Folder 14

Rubel

Box 8, Folder 1

Cemetery Information

Box 8, Folder 2

Mechanization and Mexican Labor in California

Box 8, Folder 3

Blackburns Map - IV 1995

Box 8, Folder 4

Scheffauer

Box 8, Folder 5

Puri

Box 8, Folder 6

Punjab

Box 8, Folder 7

Pendleton

Box 8, Folder 8

Social System of the Sikh Jats

Box 8, Folder 9

Photographs (1 of 3)

Box 8, Folder 10

Photographs (2 of 3)

Box 8, Folder 11

Photographs (3 of 3)

Box 8, Folder 12

Timlynn Babitsky

Box 9, Folder 1

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 2

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 3

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 4

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 5

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 6

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 7

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 8

Miscellaneous notes

Box 9, Folder 9

Miscellaneous notes

Box 10, Folder 1

Divorce

Box 10, Folder 2

Marriages 1949 +/or 2nd. Gen (8 envelopes with notes)

Box 10, Folder 3

Notes (13 envelopes with notes)

Box 10, Folder 4

Miscellanea

Box 10, Folder 5

Miscellanea

Box 11, Folder 1

Forms: Marriage

Box 11, Folder 2

Marriages (8 envelopes)

Box 11, Folder 3

Forms: Death

Box 11, Folder 4

Miscellaneous Death Certificates (9 envelopes)

Box 11, Folder 5

Habakkuk and other Hs

Box 11, Folder 6

Miscellaneous

Box 11, Folder 7

Miscellaneous

Box 12, Folder 1

Daughters Interviews

Box 12, Folder 2

Sons Interviews

Box 12, Folder 3

Wives

Box 12, Folder 4

Old Hingus + in-laws

Box 12, Folder 5

Anglos / others

Box 12, Folder 6

Miscellaneous Interviews

Box 12, Folder 7

Miscellaneous Interviews

Box 12, Folder 8

Miscellaneous

Box 12, Folder 9

Miscellaneous articles + other publications

Box 12, Folder 10

Miscellaneous

Box 12, Folder 11

Miscellaneous Interviews

Box 13, Audiocassette 1

Rollo Singh, Carmen Sharma, George (Separate)

Box 13, Audiocassette 2

Ganga Singh Bhatti - translated; by T.S. Sibia

Box 13, bound_volume 1

The History of the Imperial Valley Swiss, 1984

Box 13, Folder 1

Unlabeled texts

Box 13, Folder 2

Unlabeled texts

Box 14, Folder 1

Marriage Certificates

Box 14, Folder 2

Marriage 1949 - 69 + 2nd. Gen.

Box 14, Folder 3

Infant Child Mortality

Box 14, Folder 4

Photographs

Box 14, Folder 5

Divorce 1946 + 3

Box 14, Folder 6

Marriages and Divorces

Box 14, Folder 7

Intermarriage Articles

Box 14, Folder 8

Bankruptcies

Box 14, Folder 9

Government of India Census

Box 14, Folder 10

Mexican Immigration plus Bancroft

Box 14, Folder 11

Punjabi Immigration Articles

Box 14, Folder 12

AAS 1990

Box 14, Folder 13

Diwan Singh Articles

Box 14, Folder 14

Miscellaneous

Flat-box 1, Folder 1

Generations by Counties

Flat-box 1, Folder 2

Couples Before 1949

Flat-box 1, Folder 3

Miscellaneous (Maps, and Naturalization of Hindus)

Flat-box 1, Folder 4

Genealogical trees for Teresa Garewal and Kaser Singh

Flat-box 1, roll 1

Genealogical tree for Fernando Sanga

Flat-box 1, roll 2

Genealogical tree for Norma Saikhon