The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs

Finding aid prepared by Suzanne Oatey.
The Huntington Libary, Photo Archives
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2129
Email: publicinformation@huntington.org
URL: http://www.huntington.org
© 2013
The Huntington Library. All rights reserved.


Descriptive Summary

Title: The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs
Dates: approximately 1886-1911
Collection Number: photCL 312
Creator: Monsen, Frederick, 1865-1929.
Extent: 373 photographs: prints (approx. 11 x 14 inches) on oversize mounts (approx. 21 x 26 inches). Also includes 1 box of ephemera.
Repository: The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens.
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2129
Email: publicinformation@huntington.org
URL: http://www.huntington.org
Abstract: This set of photographs, titled “The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs” by the photographer Monsen, focuses on Native Americans of the Southwest in mostly candid photographs taken in Pueblo communities, approx. 1886-1911. Views include portraits, ceremonies, dances, pueblos, livestock and scenes of daily activities. A smaller portion of the collection consists of landscapes, cliff-dwellings, ruins, gold miners, wagons and scenes of pioneer life in the West.
Language of Material: The records are in English.
Note:
Finding aid last updated on November 15, 2013.

Administrative Information

Access

Collection is open to qualified researchers. For more information, please contact the Curator of Photographs.

Publication Rights

All requests for permission to publish or reproduce in any format must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Photographs.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Acquisition Information

Purchased by Henry E. Huntington from Frederick Monsen, 1923. Correspondence from Monsen, dated Feb. 22, 1925, indicates he was still making prints for the Huntington Library two years after the official acquisition: “Arrived here a week ago and am now busy making prints for the Albums. I have selected the finest of my negatives for enlarging and results are most satisfactory.” Monsen and Huntington may have become acquainted as early as 1909; they were both elected as Fellows to the American Geographical Society in that year.

Biography

Frederick I. Monsen was born in Bergen, Norway, in 1865, and emigrated to Utah Territory with his parents in 1868. He grew up in the West, where his adventurous spirit and artistic talents drew him to the explorations and surveys taking place there in the late 19th century. He worked variously as an artist, topographer, writer and photographer, and spent the later years of his life as a lecturer and expedition leader.
Monsen learned photography as a teenager, when he and his father worked as a photographic team for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. He began joining U.S. Geographical Surveys, sometimes informally, in the late 1880s. In 1889, he took over for the injured official photographer, Franklin Nims, on the Brown-Stanton Railway survey of the Colorado River. He joined the Salton Sea Expedition in 1891, and spent six months independently exploring Death Valley and Baja California in 1893. He also went on explorations to Alaska, the Yukon, Mexico and Central and South America. But the area he repeatedly visited and made his specialty was the Southwest, and he developed a deep personal interest in the Native Americans of the area. Like several other Western photographers in the late 19th and early 20th century, Monsen wished to document the lives of Native Americans before their way of life had been irrevocably altered. He recurrently lived and worked in the Desert Southwest from the mid-1880s until his death in 1929. Many of his earliest trips were taken with close friend and fellow Pasadena photographer A. C. Vroman. They were known to sometimes photograph the same subject, and would often work in the darkroom together on their return.
Monsen lost more than 10,000 negatives and prints – the bulk of his life’s work – in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Two trunks of lantern slides and prints were salvaged, and he was able to reconstruct parts of his collection from prints he had sold or given to others. He also borrowed some negatives from Vroman to fill in his collection for his lectures. For this reason, attribution for some photographs has been difficult – see “Note on Attribution,” below.
In the late 19th century, when Kodak introduced handheld box cameras and roll and cartridge film, Monsen found he preferred the small cameras, and began to use them regularly. Carrying a discreet pocket Kodak camera on his belt, he could capture his Indian subjects in more naturalistic and spontaneous moments, avoiding the “stiff, posed, time exposed attempt at dramatic effect that was neither … truth or art.” He was also pleased with the enlargements he made from the smaller 3 ¼” x 4 ¼” film, that had “atmosphere, perspective, and a certain quality of light and shade I had never seen in the others.” (With a Kodak In the Land of the Navajo)
In 1907, “The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs,” an exhibit of enlarged photographic prints of the Indians and scenery of the Southwest, was shown at the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.; the American Museum of Natural History; and The Explorers' Club, New York City. In that same year, The Craftsman magazine published a series of writings and photographs by Monsen, describing his experiences with the Hopi people.
Monsen was elected as a Fellow to the distinguished Royal Geographical Society in 1910. By the 1920s, he was a seasoned and popular explorer-lecturer, known for his striking colored lantern slides of the Southwest. Monsen died in 1929, of pneumonia, in Pasadena, at age 64.

Note on Attribution

Occasionally problems of attribution arise with Monsen’s photographs, mostly stemming from the loss of his negatives in the 1906 earthquake. Monsen borrowed back some of his own prints, and prints and negatives of friends, to supplement his collection. He and A. C. Vroman frequently exchanged negatives and prints. Three photographs in this collection have been positively identified as prints made from Vroman’s original negatives, and it is likely there are others by Vroman, or possibly P. G. Gates or Edward Kemp. (Faris, p. 153).

Scope and Content

Most of the photographs in this collection are enlargements made from 3 ¼” x 4 ¼” Kodak roll or cartridge film; Monsen preferred using the small Kodak cameras so he could quickly capture natural moments. There are also some posed portraits, landscapes and others that were possibly taken with larger-format cameras, particularly those taken on the Brown-Stanton survey of 1889. Some photographs were made by Monsen while he was with U. S. Geological Surveys, and others during his own photography trips.
The majority of Native Americans pictured are Hopi and Navajo, but there are also Paiute, Apache, and Pueblo Indians. There are a few views of Mojave Indians of Southern California, and natives of Baja, Mexico. There are several views of Indian children, shown with and without clothes, in their daily activities.
Scenes of non-Indian Western life include men in covered wagons on trails, gold prospectors and stagecoaches. There are many artistic landscape views of canyons, buttes and mesas; Death Valley; salt beds; ancient ruins; cactus and other desert plants.
Unusual subjects of note are three photographs of skeletons in the deserts of Arizona and one view of the covered bodies of prospectors being carried on burros.
The prints are all signed by Monsen and have typed or handwritten captions on the back, written by Monsen. The prints in the collection appear to have been made over a period of years – some have Monsen’s printed labels on the back, some have blank labels, or none; signatures are in both ink and pencil; some have copyright symbols, some do not; and the mounts vary in size and type of paper. There are some duplicate images, with slightly different captions, crops or printing effects. Occasionally duplicate photographs have captions that contradict each other, such as the year photographed (see for example, images 367 and 369). These discrepancies have been noted.
Other items in collection:
- One box of ephemera, including brochures for Monsen’s lectures and exhibits; a reprint of The Craftsman, March 1907; and Artland magazine, August 1926, with article on Monsen.
- One 8" x 10" photograph (in Ephemera box), titled “The Eagle’s Flight.” It shows four Hopi boys on the edge of a mesa cliff. This print appears to have been added to the collection at a later time. This image is not in the set of 373 enlargements.

Bibliography

Sources consulted:
Current, Karen. Photography and the Old West. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1978.
Faris, James C. Navajo and Photography: a critical history of the representation of an American people. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Monsen, Courtenay, letter to Gary F. Kurutz (Rare Books Dept., Huntington Library), 17 June 1973, collection files, The Frederick Monsen Ethnographic Indian Photographs Collection, Huntington Library.
Monsen, Frederick, letter to Leslie Bliss (Librarian, Huntington Library), 22 Feb. 1925, correspondence files, Huntington Library Institutional Archives.
Monsen, Frederick I. With a Kodak in the Land of the Navajo. Rochester, N.Y.: Eastman Kodak Co., n.d. (approx. 1908).
Padget, Martin. Indian Country: Representations of Travel in the American Southwest, 1840-1935. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004.
Wilkinson, Kristina. “Frederick Monsen, F.R.G.S., Explorer and Ethnographer.” Noticias (Journal of the Santa Barbara Historical Society), Vol. XV, No. 3 (Summer 1969): 14-23.

Alternative Form of Materials Available

Visit the Huntington Digital Library to view additional digitized images from the Native American Photographs Project.  

Arrangement

At some point, before or after acquisition, numbers 1- 373 were stamped in blue ink on the backs of the photographs. The photographs have been kept in this order; it is not clear if this was Monsen’s original order, or they were arranged later. It seems likely this was the order in which they were received, (possibly over a period of two years or more), since they are not arranged by date, location, tribe, or any other apparent arrangement.

Related Material

Four photographs by Monsen in the general photograph collection: photOV 10138 - 10141.

Indexing Terms

Persons

Monsen, Frederick, 1865-1929.
Nampeyo, approximately 1856-1942.
Vroman, Adam Clark, 1856-1916.

Subjects

Cliff-dwellings--Arizona.
Cocopa Indians--Mexico--Colorado River Delta.
Covered wagons.
Desert plants-Arizona.
Frontier and pioneer life.
Gold miners--West (U.S.).
Hopi baskets.
Hopi dance.
Hopi Indians.
Hopi pottery.
Human remains (Archaeology).
Indian trails.
Indians of North America--Colorado River Valley (Colo.-Mexico).
Indians of North America--Southwest, New--Jewelry.
Indians of North America--Southwest, New--Social life and customs.
Mission San Xavier del Bac (Tucson, Ariz.).
Mohave Indians.
Navajo Indians.
Paiute Indians.
Pictographs.
Pueblo pottery.
Pueblo Indians.
Ruins.
Stagecoaches.
Tipis.
Weaving.

Places

Acoma Pueblo (N.M.).
Arizona
Baja California (Mexico : Peninsula).
California.
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.).
Chinle (Ariz.).
Colorado Desert (Calif. and Mexico).
Colorado River (Colo.-Mexico).
Death Valley (Calif. and Nev.).
First Mesa (Ariz. : Mesa).
Isleta Pueblo (N.M.).
Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico.
Mexico.
Mojave Desert.
Muerto, Canyon del (Apache County, Ariz.).
New Mexico.
Painted Desert (Ariz.).
Second Mesa (Ariz. : Mesa).
Taos Pueblo (N.M.).
Utah
Walpi (Ariz.).
Zuni (N.M.).

Document types

Photographs.
Portraits.
Landscape photographs.
Ephemera.


 

List of Photographs

Note: Titles transcribed from Monsen's labels on backs of photographs, except those in brackets [ ], which are supplied by cataloger.
(1)

Hopiland. Arizona. The Hopi live on the crests of three great mesas which project into the Painted Desert like the fingers of a giant hand.

(2)

Taos, a Tigua pueblo consisting of two house groups on both sides of the little Taos river.

(3)

Hopiland. Arizona. A corner in the pueblo of Hano at the head of the First Mesa trail.

(4)

Old Hopi woman cooking dinner.

(5)

Mojave Indians. California. The photograph was made on the Rio Colorado near the Needles, where in 1911, a number of Mojave Indians were encamped. (1911)

(6)

Clouds in Hopiland, Arizona.

(7)

Laguna pueblo, New Mexico.

(8)

Navajo Indians. Arizona. Navajo woman grieving over the death of her husband.

(9)

Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico.

(10)

Hopiland. Arizona. On the crest of the precipitous mesa the Hopi towns look as if they were part of the living rock.

(11)

[Hopi girl standing in a doorway of an adobe building, with a dog at her feet.]

(12)

Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.

(13)

Arizona. The Canyon de Chelly and Del Muerto Region is the most interesting prehistoric locality in the Southwest.

(14)

Arizona. Canyon de Chelly. The wonderful Casa Blanca ruin showing the beetling cliff under which it is located.

(15)

Hopiland. Arizona. Hopi boys playing on the very edge of the mesa where a misstep would mean a fall of several hundred feet to the rocks below.

(16)

New Mexico, Mesa Encantada.

(17)

Painted Desert. Northeastern Arizona. (1906)

(18)

Monument Canyon in Northeastern Arizona.

(19)

Colorado River, Arizona. The gorge from Pima Point looking across to the North rim.

(20)

[View of ancient ruins on the banks of the Colorado River.] (1889)

(21)

Death Valley, Inyo County, Calif. Telescope Peak, 10,480 elevation.

(22)

In the Land of the Navajo, Arizona. Tsosi-bine. A judge or councilor among his people.

(23)

In Navajo Land, Arizona. Black Jack, a freighter for the government at Fort Defiance.

(24)

In Navajo Land, Arizona. A renegade Navajo from Navajo Mountain.

(25)

In the Land of the Navajo. Hostine Qust-gin-ayne, the Navajo who had charge of my horses.

(26)

Portrait of Sho-kun-yo-ma, Hopi Snake Priest, oldest participant in the Dance.

(27)

[Navajo girl and a younger child standing in front of a wood and brush shelter.]

(28)

[Hopi woman sitting on ladder at pueblo.]

(29)

Young Hopi matron of Mishongnovi.

(30)

A Study in Bronze.

(31)

The best potter in Zuniland.

(32)

The wife and little daughter of the Governor of Isleta. (1890)

(33)

Hopiland, Arizona. Kauowena, the oldest woman in Walpi. There are four generations between the old woman and the child.

(34)

Portrait of Hostine Nez, one of the Navajo judges or councilors.

(35)

Little Navajo sheep herder.

(36)

[Two little Hopi boys in a pueblo, one holding bow and arrows.]

(37)

Saalako, the subject of the photograph, enjoys the distinction of being by birthright the chief snake priestess of all Hopiland.

(38)

Hopi Indians, Arizona. Masauwah, High priest of Mishongnovi.

(39)

[Zuni woman with baby in her lap, leaning against a wood ladder.]

(40)

Hopi Indians, Arizona. Young Hopi matron.

(41)

[Portrait of a young Hopi boy.]

(42)

Navajo, Arizona. A Navajo Medicine Man.

(43)

[Portrait of young Hopi girl called Little Blue Butterfly.]

(44)

[A young Hopi woman standing in doorway of adobe building.]

(45)

Hopiland. Arizona. The photograph shows a Hopi baby about three years old.

(46)

[Hopi boy sitting on ladder.]

(47)

[Mojave girl holding a young boy in her arms.]

(48)

Hopiland, Arizona. A little Aristocrat. Child of Techunuva, Chief of the village of Oraibi.

(49)

Hopi Matron at the Well.

(50)

Hosteen Nezha, Navajo athlete and runner at Chinle. Considered fastest runner in the tribe.

(51)

Laguna. New Mexico. El Capitan, war captain of the Lagunas. (1897)

(52)

The lowest depression of the Colorado Desert (265 feet below sea level) before the overflow of the Colorado River - 1891 - filled the basin and formed the Salton Sea. (1891)

(53)

Hopi Baby. Pueblo of Sipaulovi, Second Mesa. Painted Desert, Arizona.

(54)

Cloud effect on the edge of the Painted Desert of Arizona.

(55)

Ocotillo Cactus (Fouquier Splendena). On the Sonora Desert. Mexico.

(56)

Navajo boy from Monument Valley, Arizona.

(57)

Canyon Del Muerto, Northeast Arizona.

(58)

On the old Mormon trail from Salt Lake City to the Mormon settlements in Arizona and Chihuahua, Mexico.

(59)

Yuma Indian girl. On Rio Colorado, near Yuma, Arizona.

(60)

Hopi Indian of Oraibi, Arizona. Making yarn for Hopi ceremonial dress.

(61)

Navajo boy in Canyon de Chelly.

(62)

Cocopah Indian children. Delta of the Colorado River, Lower California, Mexico.

(63)

Navajo boys on the Chinle Desert.

(64)

Prehistoric Cliff Ruin.

(65)

A locality sacred to the Navajo. The hill in the background is known far and wide as sacred ground and many healing ceremonies take place on the top of the hill.

(66)

The Corn Scramble after the Snake Race, Pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(67)

Petrified Forest, Arizona.

(68)

Sacred Butte of the Navajo, on the trail to the Little Colorado Junction with the Big Colorado.

(69)

The Painted Desert, Arizona. Dr. Monsen's Expedition of 1906.

(70)

Child Study. Hopi Pueblo of Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(71)

[View of two human skeletons in Canyon del Muerto, Arizona.] (1906)

(72)

Cocopah Indian Home, Delta of the Colorado River, Lower California.

(73)

[Canyon walls and distant view of cliff-dwelling, Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.]

(74)

Mishongnovi, Sunset study.

(75)

The plaza, Oraibi, showing the ladders descending to underground chambers called Kivas, where all the sacred and secret ceremonies of the Hopi take place.

(76)

The Daughter of the Governor of Isleta, Vicente Jiron, 1890. (1890)

(77)

Maria Abeyeta, a girl of the Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico.

(78)

Navajo child blanket weaver.

(79)

"Ah-del-Stahne" (Straight Shooter). Navajo, Jeddito Springs, Arizona.

(80)

A Navajo home (Hogan) on the Chinle desert.

(81)

The wife and children of Hostine Nez, Navajo of Chinle, Arizona.

(82)

A Navajo Home on the Desert.

(83)

Navajo Woman of Ganado, Arizona.

(84)

In the Land of the Navajo. Hash-ka-ye Yachs, one of the most prominent Navajos of Chinle.

(85)

In Navajo Land. Navajo Mountain, Arizona. Tsosi-bine (the slender one), twelve year old boy.

(86)

Gathering of Navajo at Chinle to engage in Indian sports.

(87)

Jeddito Springs, Painted Desert. Navajo women spinning and weaving.

(88)

"Poo-wish-ke-ja-le-kiss," Navajo young man, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(89)

Dezba. Young Navajo woman. Keams Canyon, Arizona.

(90)

Navajo silversmith. Chinle Desert, Arizona.

(91)

Navajo woman weaving blanket, Jeddito Springs, Arizona.

(92)

Navajo blanket weaver, Jeddito Springs, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(93)

Navajo old women and their hogan or home, Chinle Desert, Arizona.

(94)

The family of Hostine Nez, Navajo Chief. Chinle, Arizona.

(95)

Navajo Indian children, Ship Rock, Chinle desert, Arizona.

(96)

In the Land of the Navajo. Painted Desert, Arizona. Bayil-chin-iya, prominent Navajo of the Chinle desert.

(97)

In the Land of the Navajo. Hostine Dets Yazhe, a Navajo Mountain man of great influence among his people.

(98)

[Old Navajo man taking shelter against a sandstone wall, with a dog at his feet.]

(99)

[Two adolescent Navajo girls on the Navajo reservation.] (1901)

(100)

Indian Study. Navajo woman at camp fire. Black Mesa, Arizona.

(101)

Navajo hogan on the edge of the Chinle desert in Northeastern Arizona.

(102)

Old Navajo woman. Chinle Desert. Northeastern Arizona.

(103)

Inner ruin Mummy Cave, Canyon Del Muerto, Northeast Arizona.

(104)

A canyon prehistoric building partly destroyed by falling rock from cliff wall. Del Muerto, Northeast Arizona.

(105)

Mummy Cave Ruin in the Canyon Del Muerto, N.E. Arizona. One of the finest ruins in the Southwest.

(106)

Three-story ruin in Canyon del Muerto. Ground plan shows it to have contained twenty rooms. Arizona.

(107)

Del Muerto Canyon, Northeastern Arizona.

(108)

Canyon Del Muerto from the Mummy Cave, Arizona.

(109)

The magnificent Canyon Del Muerto, Arizona.

(110)

Canyon del Muerto, Navajo Reservation, Northeastern Arizona.

(111)

Canyon Del Muerto, region of Cliff Dwellings, Arizona.

(112)

The Chief's Son -- Navajo child -- Canyon Del Muerto, Arizona.

(113)

Canyon del Muerto, Arizona. Extensive ruins at the base of the canyon walls.

(114)

Mummy Cave in the Canyon del Muerto, Navajo Reservation, Arizona.

(115)

Antelope Ruin in the Canyon Del Muerto. Walls standing three stories high.

(116)

Navajo old man - Chinle Desert, Arizona.

(117)

Navajo Blanket Weaver. The Navajo tribe sell over a million dollars in blankets every year. Navajo Reservation, Arizona.

(118)

Old Navajo Blanket Weaver showing summer shelter and blanket loom, Chinle desert, Northeast Arizona.

(119)

Yanaba, five-year-old Navajo blanket weaver, Arizona.

(120)

Squaw man and his Navajo wife - a type of white man of early days. The picture was made in 1886 - Navajo Reservation, Arizona. (1886)

(121)

When the Navajo men become helpless through old age or disease they are carried to some remote spot and allowed to die of exposure and starvation.

(122)

"Hostine God Damm," Navajo of Chinle, Arizona. (1886)

(123)

Hostine Tsosibina, Navajo runner, Chinle desert, Northeast Arizona.

(124)

Navajo Blanket Weaver, Arizona.

(125)

Navajo sheep and horses. The Navajo have over a million sheep and many thousand horses. The scene is taken at Ganado, in the middle of the Navajo Reservation, Arizona.

(126)

The evidence of a tragedy discovered in a remote canyon of the Chinle desert, Arizona. The bones are of Navajo Indians.

(127)

Navajo Medicine Man, Chinle Desert, Arizona.

(128)

The Road Ahead, Navajo Reservation.

(129)

'Dle Petlezene' - Navajo. Jeddito. Painted Desert, Arizona.

(130)

A Navajo family on the march.

(131)

A Prehistoric Fortress in an unnamed canyon in Northeast Arizona. Discovered by Dr. Monsen.

(132)

Casa Blanca, upper and lower ruin of what was one of the finest prehistoric cliff dwellings in the Southwest. (1897)

(133)

Temple Canyon. One of the most beautiful of the monument canyons of the Southwest, Northeast Arizona.

(134)

Blue Canyon, Arizona.

(135)

San Francisco Peaks, Arizona.

(136)

Great Crater in Sunset Mountain, San Francisco Peaks in distance.

(137)

Chinle near the mouth of Canyon de Chelly in Northeast Arizona.

(138)

Meeting of the Clan. Navajo Indians at the entrance of the Canyon de Chelly, Northeastern Arizona.

(139)

Old Navajo woman said to be over a hundred years old. The children are her great, great grandchildren.

(140)

Meeting of the Clan. Navajo at the mouth of the Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(141)

A Navajo Indian Race.

(142)

Monument Canyon, branch of the Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(143)

Navajo Hogan in Canyon de Chelly.

(144)

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. First Cliff Ruin encountered in the canyon.

(145)

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(146)

Canyon de Chelly, Northeast Arizona.

(147)

Elephant Herd, Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. Note men on horseback at base of great rock.

(148)

Navajo sheep in Monument Canyon, a branch of the greater Canyon de Chelly.

(149)

Arizona. Casa Blanca (White House), Canyon de Chelly. (1910)

(150)

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. General view of canyon wall containing Casa Blanca ruin.

(151)

Pictographs in an unnamed gorge in the Tunicha mountains in Northeast Arizona.

(152)

Antelope Ruin in the Canyon de Chelly, Northeast Arizona.

(153)

An unknown and unnamed canyon in the Tunicha mountains in Northeastern Arizona. (1900)

(154)

The magnificent walls of the Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(155)

The Citadel, Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(156)

Cloud Study. Cloud sunset over great cottonwood grove at mouth of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.

(157)

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. Casa Blanca is one of the finest prehistoric ruins in the Southwest. (1897)

(158)

Child life among the Hopi.

(159)

Hopi Child, how he looked and felt when garbed in the White man's clothing. Pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(160)

The Hopi Town of Oraibi, Third Mesa, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(161)

Hopi Pueblo, Arizona. Oraibi, oldest and greatest town of the Hopi Indians. (1889)

(162)

Oraibi, Hopi Pueblo on the Third Mesa, Painted Desert, Northern Arizona. The famous Snake Dance at Oraibi. (1889)

(163)

Watching the Snake Race at Oraibi.

(164)

The Hopi Pueblo of Oraibi, oldest of the Hopi towns.

(165)

Group of Hopi Indians. Oraibi Pueblo, Arizona.

(166)

The oldest man in all Hopiland. Said to be over a hundred years old. Oraibi, Arizona. (1890)

(167)

Hopi Belt Weaver. The Hopi men are the weavers and dress makers. Oraibi, Arizona.

(168)

Girl with Plaque, Oraibi, Arizona.

(169)

Hopi Mother and Daughter, Hair Dressing, Oraibi, Arizona.

(170)

Masecalli at window. Hopi belle of the village of Oraibi, Arizona.

(171)

The Son of the Chief, Oraibi, Arizona.

(172)

Albino in center. Hopi girls, Oraibi, Arizona. There are many Albinos among the Hopi Indians.

(173)

Group of Hopi children. Pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(174)

A corner of Oraibi, Arizona.

(175)

Hopi baby from the Pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(176)

Lekyahonase, Hopi matron of Oraibi, Arizona.

(177)

Snake Dance of the Hopi Indians at Oraibi, Third Mesa, Arizona.

(178)

Snake Dance of the Hopi Indians at Oraibi. Painted Desert, Arizona. (1889)

(179)

Popomana (Gray Butterfly), Hopi Maiden of the pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(180)

Yeshima, young girl of the pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona.

(181)

A house cluster in the village of Oraibi. Hopi Indians of Northeast Arizona.

(182)

Buffalo Dance of the Hopi Indians of Oraibi, Arizona.

(183)

Hopiland, Arizona. Hopi boy bringing home a load of corn.

(184)

Hopiland, Arizona. Young Hopi girl of the pueblo of Oraibi.

(185)

Hopiland, Arizona.

(186)

The Snake and Antelope Priests appearing before the Kisi just before taking out the snakes.

(187)

A Corner of Oraibi.

(188)

Hopi Pueblo of Oraibi, Arizona. The Flute Dance of the Hopi is the most poetic and beautiful of all their ceremonies.

(189)

[Hopi Indians performing the Buffalo Dance, Oraibi, Arizona.]

(190)

[A young Hopi woman standing among pueblo walls, Oraibi, Arizona.]

(191)

[Hopi Indians in the pueblo of Oraibi, 1890.] (1890)

(192)

[Hopi women and children in pueblo of Oraibi, 1890.] (1890)

(193)

Hopi baby - First Mesa - Arizona.

(194)

Hopi child, Hano, First Mesa, Arizona.

(195)

Nampeyo, the artist-potter of the Hopi people, arranging pottery for firing, Hano, First Mesa, Arizona.

(196)

Hopi Pueblos, Painted Desert, Northern Arizona. Hopi Children of the Pueblo of Walpi. First Mesa.

(197)

Talaskwaptiwa, the High Priest, Pueblo of Walpi, Arizona. (1907)

(198)

Walpi. Hopi town on the first mesa. Popomana and Yalatza, dressed in all their finery.

(199)

The Kiva of the Snake Clan at Walpi, Hopi Pueblo on the First Mesa.

(200)

Walpi, Hopi Pueblo, Arizona. Lekyahonase, wife of my landlord and one of the best types in the village.

(201)

Shokunyoma, wife of the War Chief of Walpi Pueblo, Arizona.

(202)

Teelatza, Hopi matron, Pueblo of Walpi, First Mesa, Arizona.

(203)

Mesevalli and Quinn Chawa, young girls of the Hopi village of Walpi, Arizona.

(204)

The trail leading to Walpi on the First Mesa of Hopiland, Arizona.

(205)

Hopi maidens of Walpi, Arizona.

(206)

The Trail, Arizona.

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Walpi pueblo, First Mesa, Arizona.

(208)

Hopi spinning yarn, Walpi, Arizona.

(209)

Hopi House, Walpi, First Mesa, Arizona.

(210)

Walpi, Arizona. Hopi house unit showing manner of construction.

(211)

Snake Priest (Lamoki), Walpi, Arizona. (1901)

(212)

The Winner of the Race. Hopi Runner at the Snake Dance Race, 1899, Walpi, Arizona. (1899)

(213)

Typical house cluster of the Hopi Indians at the pueblo of Walpi.

(214)

The Man who handled the Snakes. Talaskwaptiwa, one of the Snake Priests of the 1890 Walpi Ceremony. (1890)

(215)

Snake Priest in full regalia. Walpi Dance, 1890, Arizona. (1890)

(216)

Supela, Head Snake Priest, Walpi Snake Dance, 1889, Arizona. (1890)

(217)

Snake Priest, Walpi Pueblo Dance, 1890, Hopiland, Arizona. (1890)

(218)

Walpi, Hopi Pueblo on the First Mesa, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(219)

Snake Priest in full regalia, Walpi Pueblo, Arizona. Dance of 1890. (1890)

(220)

Shokunyoma, old Hopi Indian on his way to his farm to cultivate the corn. Arizona.

(221)

Hopi girls, Sichomovi, Arizona.

(222)

Sekyahonase, Daughter of Nampeyo, who was the best potter in Hopiland.

(223)

Hopi Corn Fields, Northern Arizona.

(224)

Child Life among the Hopi. Young girls of the pueblo of Hano.

(225)

Hopi town of Hano, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(226)

Cloud Study on the Painted Desert, Arizona.

(227)

The Painted Desert, Arizona. (1906)

(228)

Cloud Effect, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(229)

Hopi Indians of the Second Mesa, Hano, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(230)

[Hopi boy on stone steps of pueblo.]

(231)

Wild Horses on the Painted Desert.

(232)

Excavating in a prehistoric Indian burial ground. Citadel ruin on hill in background. Painted Desert, Arizona.

(233)

Popomana, Hopi maiden of Shongopovi, Painted Desert, Arizona.

(234)

On the terrace of a Hopi home, Arizona.

(235)

Talimka and Yalatza, sisters. Pueblo of Hano, Hopiland, Arizona.

(236)

An Indian trading station on the Painted Desert, Arizona. (1887)

(237)

Eagle Rock, Petrified Forest.

(238)

Pictographs in Painted Desert near Holbrook.

(239)

Bithahotshi Trading Post. Painted Desert en route to Hopiland, Arizona. (1887)

(240)

Hopi woman with baby, showing cradle in use among these people.

(241)

The Painted Desert, Arizona. (1906)

(242)

Child Life among the Hopi Indians of the Painted Desert, Northern Arizona.

(243)

Quin Chawa, Matron at Hotevilla, Arizona.

(244)

Mother and child, Hopiland.

(245)

Excavating in Ancient Hopi burial ground. Showing natural burial. Arizona. (1901)

(246)

The Flute Altar.

(247)

Child Life at Sichomovi, Hopiland, Arizona.

(248)

Mishongnovi, Arizona. Kachina Dance.

(249)

Hopi Girl, Pueblo of Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(250)

Hopi Indians of the Second Mesa, Painted Desert, Arizona. The Flute Dance, Mishongnovi.

(251)

Lalocali, Girl of the Pueblo of Sipaulovi, Hopiland, Arizona.

(252)

Masevali, Hopi child of the village of Sichomovi, Arizona.

(253)

Dramatic Flute Dance Ceremony. Hopi Indians, Mishongnovi, Northeast Arizona. (1890)

(254)

The daughter of the chief, Loluloma, Shoshongnovi, Hopiland, Arizona.

(255)

A house cluster in Hopi village of Shongopavi, Arizona.

(256)

The beautiful Flute Dance ceremony on the Second Mesa near the Hopi village of Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(257)

Three little maids from Hopiland, Sichomovi, Arizona.

(258)

The Pueblo of Mishongnovi, Second Mesa.

(259)

On the Warpath.

(260)

The Flute Ceremony, Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(261)

The Hopi Pueblos of Mishongnovi and Sipaulovi (in distance), Arizona.

(262)

Sipaulovi and part of Mishongnovi from east of Mishongnovi. Hopi towns on the Second Mesa, Arizona.

(263)

Sipaulovi, highest and smallest of the Hopi towns.

(264)

Mesevili, young Hopi woman from the Second Mesa of Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(265)

Sipaulovi Pueblo. Hair Dressing, Hopiland.

(266)

Antelope Dance of the Hopi Indians.

(267)

[Hopi Indians participating in the Flute Ceremony, Mishongnovi, Second Mesa, 1890.] (1890)

(268)

The Flute Ceremony, Mishongnovi, Hopiland.

(269)

Mother and child of the Hopi town of Mishongnovi, Arizona.

(270)

Snake Priest at entrance of Kiva, Michongnovi, Arizona.

(271)

The Flute Ceremony. Entering the Plaza. Mishongnovi, Hopiland, Arizona.

(272)

Mishongnovi and Sipaulovi, Hopitowns on the Second Mesa, Arizona.

(273)

Sipaulovi Basket Maker, Hopiland, Arizona.

(274)

Prehistoric Hopi Ruins of the Citadel groupe in Arizona.

(275)

Citadel Ruins, Little Colorado River, Arizona.

(276)

Pioneers crossing the Little Colorado in Arizona, 1885. (1885)

(277)

Invocation.

(278)

The Colorado River from Desert View. Early morning. Arizona.

(279)

An Arizona Sky. In distance, Sunset crater. Near Flagstaff.

(280)

The Inner Gorge of the Marble Canyon of the Colorado River. Photo made on Stanton Survey, 1889. (1889)

(281)

[Two Mexican men panning for gold in the Picacho region of the Colorado River, 1890.] (1890)

(282)

[Mission San Xavier del Bac, Tucson, Arizona.]

(283)

[View of altar in Mission San Xavier del Bac, Tucson, Arizona.] (1894)

(284)

San Xavier Mission, Arizona.

(285)

[View of altar in Mission San Xavier del Bac, Tucson, Arizona.] (1894)

(286)

Mojave Indian children on the banks of the Colorado River in Arizona.

(287)

[A man with his burro carrying gold prospecting equipment.]

(288)

Pioneers making their way to California in 1886. Arizona. (1886)

(289)

Playing a Lone Hand. Crossing the Arizona Desert near Colorado River. Pioneers of 1886. (1886)

(290)

Colorado River, Arizona. Marble Canyon. Photograph made on the Brown-Stanton survey in 1889. (1889)

(291)

Cloud effect on the Edge of the Coconino Forest, Arizona.

(292)

The Pueblo of Acometa, New Mexico.

(293)

Acoma, New Mexico. Prehistoric vertical trail leading from the desert plain below the cliff to the top of the great rock on which the town of Acoma is located.

(294)

Acoma, New Mexico. Mission Church built in 1700.

(295)

Enchanted Mesa, New Mexico.

(296)

The Witches Rocks, Acoma, New Mexico.

(297)

The Witches - Great rocks guarding trail to Acoma, New Mexico.

(298)

[Three young Acoma Indian girls standing together on the sand.] (1887)

(299)

Abada, one of the best potters of Acoma.

(300)

Acoma Children at Home.

(301)

Trail leading to village of Acoma, in West Central New Mexico.

(302)

Old Church in Acoma.

(303)

[The water source for the pueblo of Acoma.]

(304)

Acoma from the desert - showing entire length of mesa.

(305)

Acoma from the top of the old church.

(306)

The Sand Trail to Acoma.

(307)

Prehistoric trail leading to the pueblo of Acoma.

(308)

Acoma, New Mexico.

(309)

Old Church at Acoma, New Mexico.

(310)

Acoma. Mother and daughter.

(311)

Annual Harvest Dance (September), Acoma, New Mexico.

(312)

The Rock Monuments surrounding Acoma - the sky city of New Mexico.

(313)

[Women baking bread in oven at Acometa, a summer pueblo of the Acoma Indians.]

(314)

House at Summer Pueblo of Acometa, New Mexico. Mother and daughter baking bread in oven introduced by the Spaniards.

(315)

The Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico. The annual harvest dance of the Acoma Indians.

(316)

[Hopi Indians performing Kachina dance.]

(317)

The Giant Cliffs of Acoma.

(318)

Acoma child. Daughter of the Chief. New Mexico.

(319)

The Cliffs of Acoma, New Mexico.

(320)

[Two young women of Isleta Pueblo carrying bundles of wood on their heads.]

(321)

Santa Fe, New Mexico. Mexican cart engaged in transportation of hides between Embudo and the Rio Grande. (1880)

(322)

Isleta, New Mexico. Showing estufa or Spanish oven introduced by the Spaniards and now used by all the Rio Grande Indians.

(323)

Pajarito Park, New Mexico.

(324)

Two little girls from the Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico.

(325)

Isleta Pueblo, New Mexico. Estufa (oven). Young girl baking bread.

(326)

Zuni Pottery Maker, Decorating.

(327)

Zuni, New Mexico. The son of the Governor of Zuni.

(328)

Taos Pueblo, New Mexico. The Queen of Pueblos and the most Eastern of all pueblos of the Southwest.

(329)

Governor of Taos, New Mexico, and his wife, 1900. (1900)

(330)

Taayallena from the Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico.

(331)

"Taayallena Mesa." Showing Shrine Cave near top. Near Zuni, New Mexico. Sacred Mountain of the Zuni Indians.

(332)

Zuni girl mothering little sister.

(333)

Marie Paisano and her family, Laguna, New Mexico.

(334)

Young girls of Isleta Indian Pueblo, New Mexico.

(335)

Young girl of Isleta, New Mexico.

(336)

Rufaja, a Belle of Zia.

(337)

Kiva (Underground ceremonial chamber). Taos Pueblo, New Mexico.

(338)

Zuni, New Mexico.

(339)

Zuni mother and child. New Mexico.

(340)

Around San Juan, New Mexico. Girl wearing typical buckskin boots.

(341)

Rain Dance of the Zuni Indians, New Mexico.

(342)

"Sikeeshe." Water Carrier. Isleta, New Mexico.

(343)

Woman of Zuni with water jar, New Mexico.

(344)

"Quin Chawa" (Flowing Hair), Isleta, New Mexico.

(345)

General view of the Laguna, a Keresan pueblo situated in Valencia County, New Mexico.

(346)

An Arizona garden.

(347)

[Saguaro cactus in the desert of Southern Arizona.]

(348)

In Apache Land.

(349)

Catalina Mountains, Arizona.

(350)

In the Heart of Apache Land, Southern Arizona.

(351)

The Desert of the Gila River, Southern Arizona.

(352)

On the Rio Colorado near Fort Mojave.

(353)

The Pioneer Stage, Nevada. (1887)

(354)

Paiute Indians, Nevada. (1890)

(355)

The Volcano Fields, so called. A region of geysers and mud springs in Lower California.

(356)

The Desert of the Colorado in bloom, Southern California.

(357)

Mexican family living on banks of the Colorado River, California, 1887. (1887)

(358)

The Colorado Desert showing San Jacinto Mountains, Southern California.

(359)

The Colorado Desert, Southern California.

(360)

The old Mormon Pioneer trail from Salt Lake City to San Bernardino. (1891)

(361)

Picacho. Castle Dome on the Colorado River.

(362)

Picacho. The earliest Gold Placer location in California.

(363)

Andraes Canyon. Home of the Ancient Desert Indians of the Colorado Desert, California.

(364)

The Colorado Desert, Southern California.

(365)

Animal life on the Mojave Desert of California.

(366)

[A gold prospector, Pete Dailey, and two burros loaded with equipment, Death Valley.] (1900)

(367)

Butterfield Stage Route, Colorado Desert, California, 1889.

(368)

The Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California.

(369)

A Pioneer crossing the desert, 1895, Mojave, California.

(370)

The Mojave Desert, California. Bringing in the desiccated bodies of two prospectors who perished from thirst in Death Valley.

(371)

A Grub Stake Prospector on the Mojave Desert, not far from Death Valley, California, 1889. (1889)

(372)

Yucca of the Mojave Desert, California.

(373)

The Mojave Desert, California. A forest of yuccas extending for many miles north of the Amargosa, near Death Valley.