Philip Reade Collection of Native American Photographs by William S. Soule

Huntington Library. Photo Archives
Huntington Library. Photo Archives
Photograph Collections, 1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
(626) 405-2129

Descriptive Summary

Title: Philip Reade Collection of Native American Photographs by William S. Soule
Dates: 1867-ca. 1900 (bulk 1867-1869)
Collection Number: photCL 189
Creator/Collector: Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936; Soule, William S. (William Stinson), 1836-1908
Extent: 25 photographs in 2 boxes; prints 13 x 21 cm. (5 x 8 in.) and smaller. See itemized list under "Additional collection guides."
Online items available
Repository: Huntington Library. Photo Archives
San Marino, California 91108
Abstract: This is a collection of mostly studio portraits of Native Americans from the Midwestern and Southwestern United States taken during the American Indian Wars. There are also views of their homes and camps on reservations.
Language of Material: English


Access is granted to qualified researchers and by appointment. Please contact the Curator of Photographs at the Huntington Library.

Publication Rights

All requests for permission to publish photographs must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Photographs. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Huntington as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.

Preferred Citation

Philip Reade Collection of Native American Photographs by William S. Soule. Huntington Library. Photo Archives

Acquisition Information

Given by Philip Hildreth Reade. Date unknown. Philip Hildreth Reade (1844-1919) was a Brigadier General in the United States Army and fought against the Plains Indians in the American Indian Wars in the late 1800s.

Biography/Administrative History

William Stinson Soule was born in Maine in 1836. At the age of 27, he served in the Union Army during the Civil War but was wounded at the Battle of Antietam, resulting in a discharge. In 1865, Soule worked at a photographic gallery in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, before heading west to improve his health, taking his photography equipment with him. In 1869, Soule traveled to Camp Supply in Oklahoma; it was there he photographed Indian prisoners of war from the American Indian conflicts in the Great Plains. Later that same year, he traveled to Fort Sill, which served as an Indian agency and a military control headquarters for various Plains Indians. Here, Soule photographed studio portraits of members of the Plains tribes, including the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, from 1870 to 1874. Around 1874, Soule left Fort Sill and traveled to Boston, where he opened and ran a photography studio until his retirement in 1902. Soule died in Boston at the age of seventy-two in 1908.

Scope and Content of Collection

The photographs in this collection depict members of the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Kiowa, Osage, and Wichita tribes during the American Indian Wars; Native American camp sites on Indian reservations; chieftains; a medicine man; native prisoners of war; native women and children; braves and their families; tipis; native families; and native scouts for the U.S. army. Notable portraits include Lone Wolf, Satank, Chief Stumbling Bear, and Chief Powder Face. William S. Soule is the photographer of the first 23 photographs (taken ca. 1867-1869), and Fred Miller is the photographer of the last two (taken ca. 1900). NOTES ON SOURCES USED IN THE CREATION OF THE FINDING AID: Belous, Russell E. “Will Soule: Indian Photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 1869-74.” Los Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press, 1969. / Nye, Wilbur Sturtevant. “Plains Indian Raiders: The Final Phases of Warfare from the Arkansas to the Red River.” Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. / O’Connor, Nancy Fields. “Fred E. Miller: photographer of the Crows.” Malibu, Calif.: Carnan Vidfilm, 1985.

Indexing Terms

Arapaho Indians
Cheyenne Indians
Comanche Indians
Crow Indians
Indian reservations
Indian scouts
Indians of North America—Great Plains
Kiowa Indians
Osage Indians
Wichita Indians
Lone Wolf, Kiowa Indian
Satank, Kiowa Chief, 1810-1871
Stumbling Bear, Kiowa chief
Indian Territory
Llano Estacado

Additional collection guides